Category Archives: News

Hand Sanitizer

We have had to use hand sanitizer so much lately!  But how does it work and is it effective against viruses?

How Does Hand Sanitizer Really Work?

How Does Hand Sanitizer Really Work?

Updated March 19, 2020
By Rachelle Dragani

“Hand sanitizer has never had a bigger moment. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to upend our lives, hand sanitizer has turned into an important part of slowing the spread and flattening the curve.

But in between the globs of hand sanitizer (if you can can get your hands on it, that is) you may be wondering …

How Does Hand Sanitizer Even Work?
Alcohol-based hand sanitizer works by destroying the microbes that make up many bacterias and some viruses.

The main ingredient of these sanitizers is alcohol, usually ethanol (which is the same kind of alcohol you need if you’re brewing a drink like beer or wine), isopropanol (often found in rubbing alcohol, though some formulas have ethanol in rubbing alcohols instead), or N-propanol. Additionally, different manufacturers add ingredients like water, fragrances or ingredients that keep the alcohol from drying out your hands.

It’s the alcohol that does the job, though. When an alcohol-based sanitizer comes in contact with bacteria, a process called denaturation occurs. During denaturation, the alcohol unfolds and inactivates the important proteins and the outer coat of the bacteria. This process makes it impossible for the microbe to stay together, effectively rendering it useless, or killing it.

It’s kind of like if you were wearing a coat to protect you on a cold day, but then you walked by a magical machine that made the coat quickly shred into a million pieces. The pieces would still technically be around you, but when they weren’t held together by the threads that make them into a winter jacket, they wouldn’t be able to protect you – or anything – from the cold. Like the bacteria when it comes in contact with sanitizer, it’s rendered useless.

What About Viruses?
Since hand sanitizers are often called antibacterials, many people believe they’re ineffective against viruses. That’s not 100% true. But far more bacterias have that coat, which is usually referred to as an envelope, than viruses do.

There are enveloped viruses, though, and COVID-19 is one of them.

That means that hand sanitizers that have at least a 60% concentration of alcohol in them can be effective for at least fighting off some of the virus microbes that could be on your hands. You don’t need to go higher than 95%, as the killing of germs seems to top out there. Look for the percentage of alcohol listed right on the bottle.

If you are trying to use a homemade sanitizer or one where you can’t find the percentage of alcohol, do not rely on it to kill the virus.

And even if you’ve got one that’s 60% or more, don’t rely on hand sanitizer alone. The CDC recommends washing your hands with warm water and soap when possible, as it’s the best at fighting off all kinds of germs and chemicals. That’s especially the case if you’re trying to use sanitizers to clean your hands in addition to sanitizing them.

“Many studies show that hand sanitizers work well in clinical settings like hospitals, where hands come into contact with germs but generally are not heavily soiled or greasy,” says the CDC.

That means that if you’ve just gone outside to shoot some socially distant hoops in your driveway and come back inside with hands covered in grime, hand sanitizer alone likely isn’t going to get rid of all that dirt. In that instance, wash your hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds, and save the sanitizer for a boost when your hands aren’t as dirty and greasy.

It’s always important to practice this kind of sanitation, but now, it’s literally a matter of life and death for people around the world. Wash your hands, use a 60% or higher hand sanitizer to supplement if possible and stay safe!”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Places that you forget while vacuuming

Getting rid of dust!  It’s a full time job!  Tips and Tricks reminds us to vacuum in these easily forgotten place.

Places that you forget while vacuuming

Ten places that you often forget while vacuuming

“Do you skip these places while vacuuming?

Are you the type who quickly gets the vacuum cleaning done? Or do you make sure to vacuum every corner? With this checklist you can be sure that your entire house remains dust-free. There are a few places in the house that would like to see the vacuum cleaner more often…

Bottom of the shoe cabinet

You often bring in a lot of dirt on you shoes, which then settles at the bottom of your shoe cabinet. You’ll be storing your footwear in a clean place if you vacuum the shoe cabinet more often.

Your mattress

Mattresses are often forgotten when it comes to cleaning, even though we spend many hours on them. A vacuum cleaner ensures that fewer dust mites will accumulate on your mattress. Don’t forget to turn it over regularly and vacuum both sides when you do that.

Brooms and dusters

Do you clean up crumbs or spills a lot? Often the broom and dustpan are within reach to clean everything. But don’t forget that the dusters and brooms themselves also need to be cleaned from time to time. By placing the vacuum cleaner on the bristles of brooms, you avoid spreading more dust while sweeping.

Air and ventilation grilles

Ventilation grilles are very important for the supply of clean air in your home. They are especially indispensable in the bathroom. Due to the air displacement, these grilles attract a lot of dust. So, while you are vacuuming, vacuum the ventilation grilles from time to time to keep the air exchange really clean.

TV or PC sound boxes

Do you have a beautiful sound system next to your television or computer? The speakers of these systems can also use a freshening up every now and then. This is good for your electronic systems, and they will also last longer. Make sure that the setting on the vacuum cleaner is not too high to prevent damage.

Laptop or computer keyboards

The chances are your computer keyboard is anything but hygienic, especially if you regularly eat in front of your screen. Dust and crumbs can collect in the deep grooves. These areas are easy to clean with a vacuum cleaner. Most people seldom do this, so it’s probably time to clean your keyboard.

Cracks inside the fridge

Cracks in the fridge, the crisps drawer and the back of the refrigerator shelves can collect a lot of dust and other debris. Vacuuming the refrigerator every now and then ensures that you keep your food in a clean environment. In addition, a clean refrigerator uses less energy. Always a bonus!

Window sills and frames

Window sills are often a favorite place for pets. Many people also have plants or decorations in front of their windows. All of this contributes to the fact that window sills quickly become dusty and collect hair and other particles. Use the small brush of your vacuum cleaner to clean the window sills.

Kitchen and wardrobe drawers

Drawers are real dust catchers. To keep your items clean – from cutlery to socks – you also need to vacuum the bottoms of your drawers. This is also a good opportunity to sort the contents again.


Use your vacuum cleaner to prevent the dust from your curtains spreading all over the rest of the house. This is a suitable method to clean almost all types of window coverings, from roller blinds to blinds. Choose the right head for the vacuum cleaner to get into every nook and cranny.”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.


Every wondered where gemstones come from?  Take a look at this informative article from Thermofisher.  Follow the link to read the full article.

Where Did Those Gemstones Come From?

Where Did Those Gemstones Come From?
By Ali Somarin

“Determining the Origin and Authenticity of Gemstones using EDXRF

Precious gemstones include diamonds and colored stones such as rubies, emeralds, and sapphires. While diamonds remain the most expensive gemstone, the colored gems are rapidly gaining in popularity, as evidenced by their increasing use in engagement rings. As the value of colored gemstones increases, so does the need to verify their authenticity and source.

How Do Gemstones Form?

Most gemstones form in the Earth’s crust, approximately 3 to 25 miles beneath the Earth’s surface. Two gemstones, diamonds and peridot, are found much deeper in the Earth. Diamond forms in “kimberlite pipes” that originate in the Earth’s mantle (>125 miles) and end at the surface. Molten magma running through these pipes usually reaches the surface as lava and cools off, but if it doesn’t reach the surface, it cools more slowly, crystallizes, and forms coarse-grained minerals.

The first type of rock, igneous rock, is also formed by the cooling and crystallization of magma beneath the earth’s surface (intrusive or plutonic), or it can be formed when lava flows at the earth surface (extrusive or volcanic). Interlocking crystals grow within intrusive igneous rock and may form gemstones depending on the elements present, the cooling time, and the environment. The slower cooling (in the deep environment), the larger gemstones.

Gemstones found in igneous rock include the quartzes (including amethyst, citrine and ametrine), the garnets, moonstone, apatite, diamond, spinel, tanzanite, tourmaline, topaz and zircon. Some of these gemstones form in pegmatites and hydrothermal veins that are genetically related to igneous rocks.

Sedimentary rock is the second type and gives rise to the transported minerals such as jasper, malachite, opal and zircon. Sedimentary rocks are formed when rock is worn down and the fragments are carried by water or the wind, and they are finally compressed together over time.

The third variety, metamorphic rock, is formed when intense underground heat or pressure changes existing rocks. The beryls (emerald, morganite and aquamarine), jade, lapis lazuli, turquoise, spinel, ruby, sapphire and zircon are formed in metamorphic rock.

How Are Gemstones Found?

Diamond mining is an industrialized process. Diamonds are typically recovered through pit mining, which involves the use of heavy machinery, hydraulic shovels, and trucks to mine diamonds from kimberlite pipes. Colored gemstone (other than diamond) mining, however, is a very different process. Mining for precious colored gemstones is rigorous and time-consuming because the deposits are few and when found, tend to be characterized by small quantities of gems scattered throughout a large amount of rock. Modern mining techniques are of little value in these circumstances, and the deposits are often too small to be profitable for major mine outfits, who leave them to small, independent miners who rely on the same manual techniques they have been using for decades. Nevertheless, in recent years, several major mining companies have entered the gemstone market with new strategies for employing modern mining practice.

How Can You Be Sure a Colored Gemstone Is Real?

As with gold, gemstone counterfeits, or synthetic gemstones, can be mistaken for the real thing. Another important factor in establishing the value of a gemstone is to know where it came from, both geologically and geographically, which can’t be determined visually.

Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) is an important tool for the determination of the authenticity of colored gemstones and their geographical origin. Depending on the geological setting, precious gemstones like rubies, emeralds or sapphires from different origins often exhibit a characteristic combination of trace elements at different concentrations. As an example, identification and quantification of such elements may allow tracking an emerald down to its location of origin such as Colombia, Brazil, Afghanistan, Zambia or Zimbabwe. Similarly, the presence of certain trace elements also helps to distinguish between a valuable naturally formed gemstone (e.g. ruby) and a quasi-worthless synthetic crystal (e.g. synthetic ruby.)”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Foggy Car Windows

Something a bit lighter!  Ever wanted to clear those foggy car windows and all you do is make it worse?  Lets see what Tips and Tricks can teach us about this!

Foggy Car Windows

Source –


These 6 tips will get rid of foggy car windows fast

So you can get back on the road safely
If you drive frequently, you know what we’re talking about: your windshield fogs up right when you start your car. Which makes sense now that it’s getting a colder and more humid outside. Cold air traps less moisture than warm air. But we still want to get rid of those foggy windows as quickly as possible so we can get back on the road safely. These 6 tips will help you do just that.

1.Clean your car’s grill
It’s important to keep the grill on your car clean. These often get clogged up due to filth and leaves. If the rain can’t wash it away, there’s a good chance it’ll end up in your car. And we don’t want that because it’ll fog up the car’s windows.

2. Heat on and windows open
Don’t turn on the vent recirculation button, instead keep it off. If you do that, your car won’t bring in new air. Turn the heat on because warm air traps more moisture than cold air. In the meantime, opening the windows can help release humidity.

3. Air conditioning on
Most people only turn the air conditioning on to keep cool on warm summer days. But it can also be helpful in the winter. The AC is in fact a more effective way of getting rid of humid air than turning the heat on. Anyway, it’s always a good idea to turn on the AC every once in a while, this will help prevent odors and bacteria buildup.

4. Keep your car dry
In The Netherlands, there’s a pretty good chance you’ll get soaking wet in the rain before getting into your car every once in a while. In that case, put your wet jacket, bag, umbrella, and other belongings in the trunk. This will prevent your seat cushions from absorbing any moisture. Once you’re home, it’s a good idea to open your windows for a bit of ventilation. That is, if you have a dry place to park or a garage, of course.

5. Dehumidifier
There are special dehumidifying products, like dehumidifiers or special cushions. You can buy these to get rid of humidity in your car. And for cat owners, kitty litter in an old sock could also help.

6. Shampoo
Rub a bit of soap or shampoo on the inside of the windshield to prevent fog. Obviously not too much, otherwise you won’t be able to see the road properly.”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Dust Storm in Dubai

A dust storm raged in Dubai on Monday 3 May 2021 causing a devastating car accident.  Visit the site to see the videos.

Dust Storm in Dubai

Source –

34-car pile-up accident after dust storm hits Dubai, UAE

Posted by Teo Blašković on May 3, 2021

“A car accident involving 34 vehicles took place in Dubai, UAE on Monday, May 3, 2021. The dust storm is affecting most parts of the country. The National Centre of Meteorology (NCM) has issued a code yellow dust storm alert.

According to Dubai Police, the accident occurred due to poor visibility during a dust storm on the Emirates Road towards Sharjah, after the Al Qudra bridge.

The Roads and Transport Authority (RTA) is urging motorists to be extra careful as blowing wind, haze, and dust cause low visibility on the roads.

2 people were severely injured, another sustained moderate injury and one suffered minor injuries, according to Brigadier Saif Al Mazroui, director of traffic department at Dubai Police.”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.


Sedulitas was formed in 2017 by a merger with Kemtra, a company in operation since 2007 within the specialised training and software development space.


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We offer you comprehensive Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Management solutions including specialised Occupational Hygiene services uniquely tailored for your business. We are well aware of the frustration businesses face when compiling HSE reports for company and legislative purposes, with someone having to spend many hours in front of a computer. We are equally aware of the amount of energy required to establish HSE programs within the workplace, especially when this isn’t your core business.

Our aim is to build long term partnerships with companies in an effort to establish, build, entrench and enhance HSE solutions to improve the company bottom line – a healthy worker is a productive, happy worker which helps to ensure long term business viability and sustainability. Sedulitas has the necessary set of skills to assist any size organisation in improving its profitability through the sound integration of HSE into the production process, creating harmony between production and HSE needs.


Exposure Assessments
Through the application of international best practise, we are able to perform detailed assessments of both worker and public exposure to health risks as identified from the health risk assessment process.

Instrumentation and PPE
We provide specialised sampling instrumentation as a turnkey solution for stressors such as dust and both ionising and non-ionising radiation as well as specialised PPE such as Powered Air Purifying Respirators.

Risk Assessments
Through the application of international best practise, we are able to perform detailed assessments of both worker and public exposure to health risks as identified from the health risk assessment process.

Assisting you with setting up HSE audit protocols i.e. ISO/OHSAS/Legal and performing audits to test compliance.

View Training Courses Available
Would you like to become an Occupational Hygienist? We can get you started on that journey through international certification via the Occupational Hygiene Training Association courses presented by us.

Radiation Protection
Comprehensive radiation management services offered including the compilation of Radiation Protection Programmes and the quantification of radiation exposure.

Custom Software Applications
We can create software applications that can help with automation of repetitive data tasks, managing huge bulks of data or just for easy handling.

Hazard Maps
We compile hazard maps from data assessment data to allow for easy identification of hazards and hazardous areas within a working environment.

We can create a software application that helps with the easy input of data together with a database in order to manage and store your data safely.

We can help with user specific dashboards from any data source. Dashboards can be made up of different graphs such as bar graphs and pie charts. Dashboards are created to change in line of criteria selected.

Security Services
Assessing and developing solutions to company security risks utilising the latest technology developed to client specifications.




Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Lithium – Update

Last week we posted an article from 2016 on Lithium mining, let’s see what developments there have been……

For the full article, follow the link provided.

Lithium - Update

Source –

Profiling the top five largest lithium mining companies in the world

By James Murray 18 Feb 2021

“Global lithium production in 2019 stood at 77,000 tonnes – but as interest in the metal continues to grow, analysts expect worldwide demand will more than double by 2024

Some of the largest lithium mining companies have grown in stature in recent years, as interest in the silvery-white metal grows in tandem with demand for the electric vehicles and consumer electronics whose rechargeable batteries it powers.

But as well as its use in lithium-ion batteries, the highly-reactive and flammable alkali mineral – sometimes referred to as “white gold” – is also used in ceramics and glass, lubricating greases, polymer production, and air treatment.

According to the latest figures from the US Geological Survey (USGS), global lithium production in 2019 stood at 77,000 tonnes.

With battery manufacturing expected to accelerate over the coming years, particularly as electric vehicles become more prevalent in key markets seeking to decarbonise, interest in the metal will continue to grow, and analysts expect worldwide demand will more than double by 2024.

Here, NS Energy profiles the top five largest lithium mining companies in the world.

Top five largest lithium mining companies in the world

1. Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium
Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium, which was founded in 2000, is the world’s largest lithium mining company with a market capitalisation of $27.38bn. It brought in $767.5m in revenue in 2019.

2. Albemarle
Albemarle is a fine chemical manufacturing company based in North Carolina, US, and it operates three divisions – lithium, bromine specialties and catalysts.

Founded in 1994, the firm has grown to establish itself as the second-largest lithium miner in the world with a market capitalisation of $16.73bn as well as bringing in $3.59bn in revenue in 2019.

3. Tianqi Lithium
Tianqi Lithium, which was founded in 1995, is the third-largest lithium miner with a market capitalisation of $11.79bn. Based in Chengdu, China, the firm also raked in $748m in revenue in 2019.

The company claims to hold “world-leading positions” in its major businesses of lithium resource investment, lithium concentrates extraction and the production of advanced lithium speciality compounds.

4. Sociedad Química y Minera
With a market capitalisation of $6.38bn, Sociedad Química y Minera (SQM) is the fourth-largest lithium miner in the world.

Based in Santiago, Chile, the chemical company, which supplies iodine, lithium, and other industrial chemicals, brought in $1.86m in revenue in 2019.

5. Mineral Resources Limited
Mineral Resources was founded in 1993 and is the fifth-largest lithium mining company in the world with a market capitalisation of $5.66bn. It also raked in $1.16bn in revenue in 2019.

The West Australian-headquartered firm’s operations include open-pit mining of iron ore and lithium, as well as lithium hydroxide processing.”



Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.



Not a new article but interesting none the less.

Where Will All the Lithium Needed for Electric Cars Be Mined?

Where Will All the Lithium Needed for Electric Cars Be Mined?
By Tim Nunney

“Many commodity prices are in a slump, but lithium prices are on the rise, driven by the growing demand for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries to supply the electric car market. Tesla plans to produce 500,000 battery-powered vehicles per year by 2020, with batteries supplied by the company’s 13.6 million square foot “gigafactory” which, once completed, will be the world’s second largest building by volume. Tesla may be the most well known electric car manufacturer thanks to the publicity surrounding the gigafactory, but Apple, Google, and Faraday Future are also getting into the electric car market. According to an article on, Apple will be competing directly with Tesla with its own electric car which is expected to be available in 2019, while the start-up Faraday Future is planning a new $1-billion factory in Las Vegas, and is hoping to produce its first car next year. And all these battery factories will demand an estimated 100,000 tons of new lithium carbonate by 2021.

Where will all the lithium come from? Lithium is a poorly concentrated mineral, so traditional hard-rock mining of lithium-bearing pegmatite and spodumene is a costly and time-intensive endeavor. The easiest and least expensive method of obtaining lithium is by the evaporation of highly concentrated lithium brine. Read Lithium Mining Today May Influence What You Drive In the Future to learn more about the brining and hard rock mining methods of obtaining lithium.

North America has only one lithium mine, the Albermarle Silver Peak Mine, and only one U.S. company is currently producing lithium from brine. Most of the world’s lithium comes from brine operations in Chile and a spodumene operation in Australia. China and Argentina are also major lithium producers. Establishing a reliable, diversified supply of lithium is a top priority for technology companies in the United States and Asia, particularly battery suppliers and vehicle manufacturers, and numerous lithium claims have been leased or staked worldwide. Brine operations are under development in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and the United States; spodumene mining operations are under development in Australia, Canada, China, and Finland; a jadarite mining operation is under development in Serbia; and a lithium clay-mining operation is under development in Mexico. (More data available from the U.S. Geological Survey’s 2016 Lithium Mineral Commodity Summary.)

But just because the electric car market is poised to take off doesn’t mean there isn’t room for improvement in the performance of Li-ion cells, for example to increase energy density, reduce weight, decrease costs, and improve recharge times. Understanding the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the electrodes, which is created as the cell charges and discharges, is an area of significant interest, so that it can be controlled and therefore improve cell performance. XPS depth profiling offers a way of chemically characterizing the complex mix that makes up the interphase layer, allowing an identification of the chemistries that comprise the SEI.”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.




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We specialise in environmental rehabilitation of mining and exploration sites, along with bioremediation and water treatment for various contaminations.

Nvirobuild also stock environmental products and offer a turnkey zero waste to landfill solution.

With our range of bacterial applications, we offer environmentally friendly solutions to previously costly and complicated projects.

Our civil department enables us to be the perfect contractor for constructing and managing waste facilities on site.



We provide the following rehabilitation services to enable successful rehabilitation outcomes:

As our primary business is ecological rehabilitation, we are focusing to ensure we deliver the best possible solution for every individual project. Nvirobuild ensures that maintenance on the sites is done up to the point of sign off by the DMR or the client. Nvirobuild also ensures successful rehabilitation / demolition of old building structures and excavations.

We are able to take on conveyors, workshops, crushers, office buildings, cement slabs etc. We will supply a quality product and give it off in time, our Civil department combined with our Environmental department can provide a unique solution for client.

Contact us for a quotation on Oil Spill Kits and all relevant absorbents and products used in workshops, offices. Nvirobuild manufactures a ready to use Bioremediation mix, this mix is ready for use as is. We use the product in our own bioremediation process and achieves great success with it.

We can do steel construction on any scale.

Portfolio –




Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Massive eruption at Soufriere St. Vincent

A volcano that has been dormant for 42 years has erupted on Soufriere St. Vincent.  To see the images, please follow the link to the source of the article.


Massive eruption at Soufriere St. Vincent
Image credit: CDEMA. Acquired: April 13, 2021

New massive eruption at Soufriere St. Vincent, SO2 emissions spreading over two continents

Posted by Teo Blašković on April 13, 2021

“A new high-level, major eruption took place at Soufriere St. Vincent volcano at 10:40 UTC on April 13, 2021. The SO2 emissions produced over the past 2 days are now spreading over two continents — South America and Africa. Extremely heavy ash is covering the island of St. Vincent, leaving the nation without electricity.

The pattern of seismicity changed again, with the end of the episodes of high-amplitude tremor 2 to 8 hours apart, the University of West Indies Seismic Research Center (UWI-SRC) said early April 13, 2021.

Three episodes of tremor have been recorded since 06:00 LT on April 13, 2 of them with lower-amplitude, and the third, at about 17:00 LT, was high-amplitude. The episodes continue to coincide with periods of enhanced venting or explosive activity.

Observations indicate that pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) had descended several valleys on the southern and western flanks of the volcano and had reached the sea at Morne Ronde, Larikai, and Trois Loupes Bay.

Extensive damage to vegetation was noted in an area extending from Larikai Bay to Turner Bay on the west coast. No other areas along the coast had been affected by PDCs but villages located on the eastern flank of the volcano had been affected by heavy ashfall.

Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days with the chance of PDCs occurring, UWI-SRC warned just hours before another massive eruption at 10:40 UTC today:

Today’s eruption came on the volcano’s 42nd anniversary of the VEI3 1979 eruption.

A massive explosion and new pyroclastic flows were produced at 08:15 UTC on April 12, with ash cloud reaching approximately 17 km (55 000 feet) above sea level.

Extremely heavy ash has covered the island of St. Vincent since the explosive eruptions began on Friday, April 9, leaving the majority of St. Vincent and the Grenadines without power on April 11, 2021.

New observations show changes to the summit crater with a possible smaller vent inside the new crater.

The black/dark areas to the west (left) of the summit are the pyroclastic flow deposits from earlier explosive events.

Geological summary
Soufrière St. Vincent is the northernmost and youngest volcano on St. Vincent Island. The NE rim of the 1.6 km (1 mile) wide summit crater is cut by a crater formed in 1812.

The crater itself lies on the SW margin of a larger 2.2 km (1.3 miles) wide Somma crater, which is breached widely to the SW as a result of slope failure.

Frequent explosive eruptions since about 4 300 years ago produced pyroclastic deposits of the Yellow Tephra Formation, which blanket much of the island.

The first historical eruption took place in 1718; it and the 1812 eruption produced major explosions.

Much of the northern end of the island was devastated by a major eruption in 1902 that coincided with the catastrophic Mont Pelée eruption on Martinique.

A lava dome was emplaced in the summit crater in 1971 during a strictly effusive eruption, forming an island in a lake that filled the crater prior to an eruption in 1979.

The lake was then largely ejected during a series of explosive eruptions, and the dome was replaced with another. (GVP)”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.