DustWatch Training Course 13-15 November 2018

Please note that the training course for Pretoria is scheduled for 13, 14, 15 November 2018.

Kloof Bed and Breakfast

570 Rutgers Street, Moreleta Park, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa
Cellphone: +27 (0)82 923 3730 | Facsimile: +27 (0)86 672 6310
E-mail: kloofbb@telkomsa.net | www.Kloofbb.co.za

Contact Person for accommodation bookings: (Optional – Any accommodation can be used but this is the venue for the training and is recommended)

Erica Lottering

Mobile no: 082 923 3730

Email: kloofbb@telkomsa.net

Website: www.kloofbb.co.za

Please book accommodation if required independently at this venue or an alternative venue.  The training will take place at this venue.

Please diarise those dates if you can make it, and RSVP by 1 November 2018 if possible.

If you would like to attend or to send a representative, then please email chris@dustwatch.com or call on 021 789 0847 / 082 875 0209 to reserve a place.

The costs for the training – R3028 per person per day, and the course runs for three days.  You can also select which days to attend if you do not want to attend all three days.

Below is a brief outline of the course, although the course will be customised to meet the specific needs of those attending.

Please do not hesitate to contact me regarding any queries.

Sincerely

Chris Loans

DustWatch CC – Precipitant Dust Monitoring

082 875 0209 or 021 789 0847 (Chris)
083 308 4764 (Gerry)
0866 181 421 (Fax)
www.dustwatch.com

______________Course Information___________________________________________________

The course has three main topics that will be covered over the three days.

  1. Fallout dust monitoring theory (Day 1)
  2. Fallout dust monitoring practical (Day 2)
  3. Fallout Dust Monitoring Reporting (Day 3)

The fallout dust monitoring section of the course aims to train the trainees so that they are able to do the following.

  1. Understand what fallout dust monitoring achieves and what is collected.  This will include discussion around the legislative requirements and will also address the possible influences of dust sensitive areas like communities, hospitals, farms, and recreational areas.
  2. Prepare buckets, transport buckets and change buckets in the Fallout Dust Monitoring units.
  3. Filter the bucket contents using a filter bench and using the related equipment used in the filtering process.  This includes advice on how to minimise the filtering time and what can be done when samples are taking very long to filter.
  4. Understand how to calculate the fallout dust monitoring results in mg/m2/day and how to interpret these results.
  5. Report writing and presentation options for the results will also be discussed.
  6. Some computer training may also be included in the course if required.
  7. Access to our software for processing of the fallout dust data will also be included after the course.  This can be used to simplify the data collection and report writing and will also provide a database of the fallout dust levels over the years.

The course will be presented by Christopher Loans who is a Professional Chemical Engineer with a Masters in Occupational Hygiene focused on the Mining Industry.

 

Yours faithfully

Chris Loans

021 789 0847

082 875 0209

083 308 4764

chris@dustwatch.com

www.dustwatch.com

 

  1. If you want to be removed from this email list, please just click reply and send the email or call 021 789 0847

Sahara dust may make you cough, but it’s a storm killer

Sahara Desert

An interesting read from Phys.org (please follow the links to the original articles) regarding the effect of dust from the Sahara Desert on the USA.

Sahara Desert

Sahara dust may make you cough, but it’s a storm killer

Phys.org
July 20, 2018, Texas A&M University

“The bad news: Dust from the Sahara Desert in Africa—totaling a staggering 2 to 9 trillion pounds worldwide—has been almost a biblical plague on Texas and much of the Southern United States in recent weeks. The good news: the same dust appears to be a severe storm killer.

Research from a team of scientists led by Texas A&M University has studied Saharan dust and their work is published in the current issue of the Journal of Climate of AMS (American Meteorological Society).

Texas A&M’s Bowen Pan, Tim Logan, and Renyi Zhang in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences analyzed recent NASA satellite images and computer models and said the Saharan dust is composed of sand and other mineral particles that are swept up in air currents and pushed over the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico and other nearby regions.

As the dust-laden air moves, it creates a temperature inversion which in turn tends to prevent cloud—and eventually—storm formation.

It means fewer storms and even hurricanes are less likely to strike when the dust is present.

“The Saharan dust will reflect and absorb sunlight, therefore reduce the sunlight at the Earth’s surface,” said Pan.

“If we have more frequent and severe dust storms, it’s likely that we have a cooler sea surface temperature and land surface temperature. The storms have less energy supply from the colder surface therefore will be less severe.”

The study goes on to show that dust and storm formation don’t mix.

“Our results show significant impacts of dust on the radiative budget, hydrological cycle, and large-scale environments relevant to tropical cyclone activity over the Atlantic,” said Zhang.

“Dust may decrease the sea surface temperature, leading to suppression of hurricanes. For the dust intrusion over the past few days, it was obvious that dust suppressed cloud formation in our area. Basically, we saw few cumulus clouds over the last few days. Dust particles reduce the radiation at the ground, but heats up in the atmosphere, both leading to more stable atmosphere. Such conditions are unfavorable for cloud formation.”

Zhang said that the chances of a hurricane forming tended to be much less and “our results show that dust may reduce the occurrence of hurricanes over the Gulf of Mexico region.”

Logan said that recent satellite images clearly show the Saharan dust moving into much of the Gulf of Mexico and southern Texas.

“The movement of the dust is there,” Zhang said, “but predictions of dust storms can be very challenging.”

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More category 5 hurricanes forecasted by scientists

Phys.org
July 18, 2018, Chapman University

“In the midst of hurricane season, climatologists around the world are monitoring tropical storm formations that have the potential to escalate into deadly hurricanes. The Atlantic hurricane season included 17 named storms last year, many of which proved to be costly and destructive for communities in their path. Hurricanes are becoming stronger and wetter due to rising sea and air temperatures. Saharan dust storms can also play a role in hurricane formation. Researchers at Chapman University have learned from studying 2012’s Hurricane Sandy, that we are more likely to see larger, more powerful hurricanes in the future.

“Although Sandy was a Category 3 storm when it made landfall in Cuba, it became the largest Atlantic hurricane on record when measured by diameter, with winds spanning 900 miles,” said Chapman University Climatologist Hesham El-Askary, Ph.D.

A Saharan dust event occurring in West Africa weeks before Sandy had formed carried large amounts of mineral dust into the troposphere, filling the tropical wave that became Sandy with aerosols along a majority of its path. By monitoring dust storms, Dr. El-Askary was able to tie this occurrence to the role it played in the hurricane’s development from a Category 1 to a Category 3 storm. With this work, he hopes to provide more accurate forecasting for these types of extreme weather occurrences.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Is Dust Worse in Summer?

Dust mites and allergies

Summer is on the way and so are allergies!  Take a look at the articles below for some info and some solutions.  Excerpts have been taken from both articles – for the complete article, please follow the links provided.

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How to Beat Summer AllergiesWebMD

“Spring’s over, but you’re still stopped up, sniffly, and sneezing.

Welcome to summer allergy season. It keeps going long after April’s showers and May’s flowers are gone.

Many of the same triggers are to blame. Once you know what they are, you can take steps to get treated.

Pollen Is the Biggest Culprit
Trees are usually done with their pollen-fest by late spring. That leaves grasses and weeds to trigger summer allergies.

Smog: It’s Worst This Time of Year
Summer air pollution can make your symptoms worse. One of the most common is ozone at the ground level. It’s created in the atmosphere from a mix of sunlight and chemicals from car exhaust. Summer’s strong sunlight and calm winds create clouds of ozone around some cities.

Tiny Things Grow in Warm Air
Molds love damp areas, including the basement and bathrooms. Their spores get into the air and set off an allergic reaction.

Microscopic insects called dust mites peak during summer. They thrive in warm, humid temperatures and nest in beds, fabric, and carpets. Their residue can get into the air and set off sneezes, wheezes, and runny noses.

How to Make Allergy Season Easier
Take some simple steps to avoid your triggers.

Stay inside when the pollen count and smog levels are high.
Keep your doors and windows closed. Run your air conditioner to keep allergens out. Use an air purifier.
Clean air filters in your home often. Also clean bookshelves, vents, and other places where pollen collects.
Wash bedding and rugs in hot water to get rid of dust mites and other allergens.
Wash your hair, shower, and change your clothes after you go outside.
Vacuum often and wear a mask. The process can kick up pollen, mold, and dust trapped in your carpet. Use a vacuum with a HEPA filter.
Wear a mask when you mow your lawn to avoid grass pollen.
Keep the humidity in your house between 30% and 50% so dust mites won’t thrive.”

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Dust Mite Solutions 

The Worst Time of Year for Dust Mite Allergy Symptoms

“If you have a dust mite allergy, you might wonder when the worst time of year is for dust mite symptoms. Could it be the Spring, Summer, Autumn, or Winter…or all of them. For many people suffering from dust mite allergy it probably seems like the suffering never stops. I agree!

In this article, I’ll share my personal experience with year-round dust mite allergy, typical symptoms, and some general treatment advice that was given to me by allergists. In addition, we’ll look at a few ways to improve your health and reduce your dust mite exposure.

Seasonal Pollen Allergies and Year-Round Dust Mite Allergies
For many allergy sufferers, seasonal exposure yields symptoms. For others, it may feel like one season is just as bad as another. For example, tree pollen season usually corresponds with spring when the weather warms and trees emerge from dormancy. Here is a guide to show when you might expect pollen allergy symptoms:

Pollen
Spring – trees
Summer – grasses
Fall – weeds
Winter – relief!

But what about Dust Mite allergy?
Well it’s not that simple. Dust mites live around us, primarily in our homes. They are less dependent on seasonality and more dependent on us!

Dust mite allergy is a unique allergy because dust mites are a living creature with short life spans. They need little water to survive (they absorb it through the air) and live off an endless supply of food that humans and pets produce on a daily basis. Their food source is, yes you guessed it, dead skin.

Our home environment allows dust mites to thrive and multiply throughout the year. Believe it or not, you cannot see dust mites. They are microscopic, and their presence in your home is almost guaranteed.

If you’re not sure whether you have a dust mite allergy here is a simple but accurate tip: If you have year-round allergy symptoms there is a good chance it’s due to dust mites.

In Summer Consider These Actions to Protect From Dust Mites
Dust Mite Proof Bedding (covers)

Beds are the number 1 home to dust mites. Protect your mattresses and pillows with dust-mite proof covers. We reviewed and recommended these mattress covers!

Dehumidifiers

If you live in a humid environment think about purchasing a dehumidifier that can reduce indoor moisture levels. Dehumidifiers can help reduce the dust mite population and reduce mold growth, especially if you have a basement.

Air Purifiers

Newer air purifiers can do wonders for cleaning indoor air. HEPA technology filters, which pick up the smallest particulates from the air can clean a whole room in 2 hours. Air Purifiers are a great addition for allergic individuals. Keep one air purifier in each room!

Air Conditioning Filters

Replace your filters in the winter and summer and buy allergy filters that remove the finest of particulates from the air. Filtrete has some great filters that not only keep out dust mites and allergens, but also odors, chemicals, and smoke (amazing).

Don’t Sweep, Use HEPA Vacuums!

Sweeping only stirs dust into the air and dust can stay suspended for hours, long after you’ve cleaned. HEPA filter vacuums suck in dust and capture it before air is released back into the room. HEPA vacuums work great for people with dust mite allergy and asthma.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Dust Storms in the Sahara

Sahara Dust Storms

There have been a large amount of dust storms in Africa over the last few month.  I hope you enjoy the read!

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Vast Dust Storms in the Sahara

Earth Observatory

“In late March 2018, North Africa endured a maelstrom of sand, with far-reaching effects. Dust from the Sahara spread north into Europe last week, coating ski slopes and Mediterranean cities in orange particles. In western Africa, tons of dust blew out over the Atlantic, perhaps headed for the Americas.

Even by the standards of the desert interior of Africa, the storms of late March have been intense. Schools and airports have been shut down in Sudan and Egypt, among other places, and a thick orange haze has filled the air as wind-driven sandstorms, or haboobs, stirred up the Sahara.

Though there is often some amount of dust being blown around in North Africa, recent activity appeared to pick up (as viewed by satellite) on March 21, 2018, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite acquired the top image. A full week later, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite acquired the second image, a natural-color view of an intense wave of dust in northeastern Africa. Major plumes of dust were visible somewhere around the Sahara on every day between those images.

“Springtime dust from Africa is interesting,” said Hongbin Yu, an atmospheric scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “Our analysis of multiple satellite measurements shows that in recent years annual dust variability is dominated by the spring. Surface wind is likely to be a dominating factor, although soil moisture and vegetation cover in Sahel-Sahara transition region also contribute.”

NASA recently began a collaboration with a science team at Cornell University to examine the climate effects of dust storms. Researchers will build an instrument, to be mounted on the International Space Station, that can detect the mineral composition of airborne dust. Minerals of various colors, sizes, and chemistry can have different warming or cooling effects on the atmosphere.”

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Dust storms ease across Africa and Middle East
“Huge amounts of dust have been on the move in recent days causing poor visibility from central Africa to the Levant.”

3 Apr 2018

Aljazeera

“Visibility across vast swaths of northern and central Africa and the Arabian Peninsula has been severely reduced since Thursday as a large-scale disturbance has resulted in huge quantities of Saharan dust being dispersed across the region.

A low pressure system developed over the desert region of Libya and the resulting circulation was responsible for dust being lifted high into the atmosphere. It swept from Egypt and Sudan, across the Arabian Peninsula and on into Kajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

There were no reports of flight cancellations, but visibility was severely reduced and many people reported increased respiratory problems.

While much of the dust swept eastwards, some was swept up from Chad and transported southwards and westwards on the northeasterly trade wind known as the Harmatten. Niger, Mali, northern Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso have all been affected.

Chad is the main source of Saharan dust. There are two key locations here. One is the Bodele Depression – the dried up remains of the ancient Lake Megachad.

The other is the Tibesti mountain area in the north of the country. Here, the volcanic mountains are rapidly eroded to dust by the harsh climate.

On a positive note, this mineral dust has great benefits. It will eventually find its way around much of the globe before being deposited in the Caribbean, Asia, South America, Europe and elsewhere.

The dust helps to build soil fertility, being rich in phosphorus, potassium, calcium and iron, depending on its source.”

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Dust storm slams Senegal
“The severe weather signals a dramatic start to the country’s rainy season.”

30 Jun 2018

Aljazeera 

“A sandstorm has battered Senegal leaving livestock dead and damaging the newly opened airport.

A wall of dust swept across the capital, Dakar, reducing visibility and bringing winds gusting to 90 kilometres per hour.

This type of dust storm is known as a “haboob” and is common in some parts of the world, such as the Arabian Peninsula, the Sahara and the desert southwest of the US. However, it is believed to be the first time that such a storm has churned over Senegal.

The word haboob is thought to have originated from Sudan and comes from the Arabic word for wind. The storms are formed when air blows strongly downwards, towards the ground, picking up vast amounts of dust. This usually happens as the result of a decaying thunderstorm.

The strong winds led to the death of a number of livestock and caused damage to the airport.

Planes were damaged, as was the terminal building, which only opened six months ago.

The haboob was followed by thunderstorms, which brought heavy rain and signalled the start of Senegal’s rainy season, which runs until October.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Dust Bucket Sizes

In response to a request to supply buckets that are 300mm high and 150 mm in diameter, the following response was prepared.

Our buckets are not that size.  The only bucket that size is from America and will need to be imported.  All the South African buckets I have seen of that size are made up by hand and the quality control on the buckets would need to be checked so that there are no crevices for the dust to hide in on the inside of the bucket.  Some of these buckets are also not white, which makes it very difficult to know when the dust is washed out of the bucket completely.

DustWatch provides the normal 5 litre buckets that are a diameter of 17.1cm and a height of 23.6cm, as per the comment in our DustWatch manual

“The DustWatch buckets are not twice as high as they are wide with a diameter of 17.1cm and a height of 23.6cm”

We have explored the option of using a bucket extension to place on top of the buckets in the field, but the additional variables this introduces to the collection of the dust in the bucket has meant that we no longer encourage clients to use this option.  See the image below for an example.

White 5 litre bucket with Lid – ZAR each – With Blue Bucket Extension

An image of the bucket on its own is shown below.

Bucket with Lid – ZAR each (For less than 210 buckets) Bucket with Lid – ZAR Each – In multiples of 210 or with other equipment


The buckets from the USA are these ones – 

https://www.humboldtmfg.com/plastic-single-use-cylinder-molds.html for the containers and then also the lids https://www.humboldtmfg.com/cylinder-mold-plastic-lid-h-3041.html

“These buckets sometimes come with a little notch in the top of the container which makes it leak more when not kept vertical.  Buckets without the notch are available as well, but even without the notch the buckets are not totally leak proof.”

Please contact DustWatch regarding any queries.

Kind Regards

Chris Loans

CSIR unveils technologies to enhance mine safety

Mine safety

CSIR unveils technologies to enhance mine safetyMining Weekly

BY: NADINE JAMES
CREAMER MEDIA WRITER

“JOHANNESBURG (miningweekly.com) – It is unlikely that the mining industry will attain its goal of zero harm by 2020 and, as such, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has revealed some of the mine safety technologies it is developing and looking to commercialise.

Speaking at the Mandela Mining Precinct, on Tuesday, CSIR principal geophysicist Dr Michael van Schoor spoke about ground penetrating radar (GPR) and how it could be used to improve roof bolting applications, as well as detecting potential faults in the hanging wall.

He pointed out that 40% of all mine incidents resulted from fall of ground incidents.

With regard to general fault detection, he explained that GPR works similarly to speed traffic radar detection systems, as the GPR transmits a signal down into the ground and faults are mapped on a radargram based on the amplification and duration of the return signal.

Van Schoor added that the CSIR is developing the technology to produce three-dimensional maps which could be integrated, in real-time, to an existing mine plan.

Other technologies under development include an instrument called Rock Pulse, which is a device that can be attached to the rock to detect fracturing. Once the rock starts fracturing, the device alerts miners of a potential imminent collapse.

The device is meant to be used in close proximity to miners and should give miners at least 90 seconds to enable them to evacuate the area.

The device has been tested in coal mining applications, where rock fracturing is part of the mining process. It can, however, also be used for hard rock applications.

CSIR principal engineer Shaniel Davrajh added that the institution has also developed an enhanced pedestrian detection system which uses algorithms to predict whether a collision is imminent, thereby eliminating unnecessary vehicle stoppages.

Further, he noted that the CSIR has developed a robot platform equipped with safety inspection sensors to enter mines during safety periods. The robot, called Monster, aims to assess and identify risks for underground mines, using thermal imaging and audio sensors.

CSIR principal researcher Dr Dave Roberts explained that the thermal imaging sensor could be used to detect loose rocks, based on the knowledge that loose rocks cool faster than the hanging wall because of the increased ventilation.

Davrajh noted that the sensor could detect temperature differences as small as 0.1 °C, and that the Monster could mark areas as potentially hazardous. The audio sensor works similarly to ‘tapping a watermelon to determine whether it is ripe’, he added.

The CSIR Monster prototype has been trialed at the precinct’s stope simulation, which has a decline of around 30°.

The event was attended by various stakeholders, including the Minerals Council South Africa, the departments of Science and Technology and Mineral Resources and representatives from industry, besides others.”

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7 Steps to Safer, Healthier Mining EmployeesMining Safety

“You don’t need us to tell you that you have a tough job. But taking these seven steps can make your job easier and your workplace safer. You’re probably already doing most or all of these things, but just in case, here’s a quick review.

Ensure compliance with safety and health standards.
Make sure you’re complying in every detail with every standard that applies to your operations and your workplace. Also check state regulations, which if they’re stricter than federal standards, take precedence. And don’t forget about your own safety policies. Ensure compliance with those rules, too.

Keep employees informed about hazards.
Identify every hazard in every work area and in every job, and make sure employees who might be exposed to any hazards know:
What the hazards are
How they are dangerous
How to protect against them
What to do in the event of exposure to a particular hazard

Take appropriate steps to minimize risks.
This involves many things including:
Well-conceived and implemented workplace safety and health programs
Routine and thorough inspections and safety audits
Effective engineering, administrative, and work practice controls
Frequent and effective employee training
Appropriate PPE to protect employees from hazards when controls are not enough
Routine workplace maintenance

Teach employees to work safely.
Training is one of your most power accident-prevention tools. Teach the information, skills, techniques, and procedures employees need to know to be safe and healthy. Train frequently to keep workers up to date on workplace and regulatory changes and to keep them aware, alert, and prepared to work safely.

Monitor performance and provide feedback.
Don’t assume that workers will use what they learn in training or do what their supervisors tell them to do. For all kinds of reasons workers will decide to take risks or ignore warnings and instructions. Make sure your supervisors monitor safety performance and provide positive or corrective feedback to maintain safe and healthy behavior.

Pay attention to employees’ suggestions and complaints.
You may not be able to use all the suggestions or be thrilled about the complaints, but listening to employees is essential if you want to get them to be on board with your safety and health programs and to follow your safety rules. The big plus here is that employee participation leads to employee ownership, which leads to employee-driven safety and a safer workplace.

Move quickly to correct problems.
Foot-dragging over hazard abatement sends a bad message to employees. It says you don’t care about their safety. So take swift and effective action whenever a safety or health problem is brought to your attention.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

And while we were changing dust buckets……….

It’s not all hard work…….  Vollie the Killer Volstruis gave us a fabulous show during one of our dust bucket changes.

Vollie the Killer Volstruis   –   Click to watch the video.

 

Mine collapse in Zimbabwe

Recent sad news about a mine collapse in Zimbabwe……

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Mine collapse in Zimbabwe kills one, injures threeMining.com 
By – Valentina Ruiz Leotaud

“Local media are reporting that one person died and three were injured after a wall collapsed at the community-operated Gaika Mine in Kwekwe, central Zimbabwe.

The miners were digging for gold and allegedly were using explosives, which weakened the shaft where they were working.

Three of them ended up trapped for a few hours but were rescued by colleagues working nearby while the fatal victim, identified as Stenford Machangai, was crushed by a giant rock that had to be removed with a hydraulic jack together with his body.

According to Africa.com, the Zimbabwe National Army has been dealing for months with people working illegally at the mine site.

The operation is said to have been reopened by the ruling party, Zanu-PF, after 20 years of closure under a community ownership scheme. However, The Sunday News reports that such activities are rejected by its original owner, Duration Gold, a subsidiary of UK-based Clarity Enterprises.”

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Nehanda Radio – 20 August 2018

By – Michael Magoronga

Mine shaft collapse kills one, injures three

“A MINER at Gaika Mine in Kwekwe died after a shaft collapsed on him on Friday morning, police have confirmed.

Officer Commanding Kwekwe Police District Superintendent Kingston Mushawembiri said police had to seek help from the fire brigade to retrieve the body of Stanford Machangai of Torwood in Redcliff.

“We received the report on Friday morning and we summoned Kwekwe Fire Brigade who assisted in retrieving the body which was trapped for some time,” said Supt Mushawembiri.

He said there was a boulder which made it difficult to retrieve the body.

“We had to use a hydraulic jack to lift the rock and remove the body. It was very huge which took hours to lift,” he said.

Miners who were mining in another other shaft also helped to rescue three other colleagues who were trapped in the same shaft. Privilege Sayi, Sikhulekile Mlalazi and Kirian Chimutengo were reportedly trapped for some hours before they were rescued and taken to Kwekwe District Hospital where they are recovering.

“The other three did not sustain life threatening injuries and are recovering well at hospital. One of them broke his legs as the huge rock also fell on him, but I understand he is recovering well at hospital,” said Supt Mushawembiri.

The mine was re-opened last year after 20 years of closure, under a community ownership scheme. Owners of the mine, Duration Gold, have approached the courts arguing that the mining activities being carried out were illegal. Sunday News.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

The Best Vacuum Cleaner

The best vacuum cleaner

At DustWach cc we are concerned with health , safety and hygiene both in the home and at your work place.  Dust, wherever it is, can cause health issues.  Here is an interesting review on The Best Vacuum Cleaner – a link to the original review is provided.

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Reviews.com

The Best Vacuum Cleaner

“Finding the best vacuum cleaners came down to just two things: which ones sucked up the most, and which ones were easiest to haul around. If they can’t hack that, why even bother? We got our hands on 19 flagship vacuums ranging from $80 to $600, dumped a bunch of junk on the floor, and compared the results.

Vacuuming. It’s on all of our to-do lists — a lot. In fact, you’ll spend an average of 30 minutes to an hour each week vacuuming for the rest of your life, according to Craig Amick, director of commercial development at Electrolux Small Appliances. That’s more than a full day every year just spent on dust, dirt, and debris.

The wrong vacuum (heavy, loud, flat-out doesn’t work) turns a simple task into a serious chore, but after testing 19 models, we’re happy to say that it doesn’t have to be so bad. We looked at the top upright vacuums from the leading brands to find which ones had powerful suction (100 percent pickup within two passes) and effortless maneuverability (so agile you could take it salsa dancing). Our pick for the best vacuum, the Hoover Air Cordless Lift, is easy to grab and go — it’s lightweight and zippy, with no cord to slow you down — and has seriously impressive cleaning power.

One thing that was shocking in our search (but not shocking to anyone who’s ever shopped for a vacuum): The price range on these guys is ridiculous. You can find a vacuum for $50 or for $1,000, even though basic performance and quality don’t vary much between mid-range and top-tier models. With those guys, you’re paying more for a lot of bells and whistles — from floor tools that light up to automatic suction control. With budget models, it’s a total mixed bag. Some truly suck (in the bad way) and others work better than their four-figure counterparts. Case in point: While you sacrifice some oomph and get lower-quality plastic construction, the Bissell CleanView 9595A ($80) outperformed much more expensive models like the SEBO 9807AM Felix 1 ($600) in both cleaning power and ease of use in our hands-on testing.

How We Found the Best Vacuums
Do a quick Amazon search, and suddenly you have over 13,000 vacuums to choose from. With no clear hierarchy of models or brands (coupled with the bewildering task of deciphering what’s a marketing gimmick and what’s a legitimate feature), shopping for a vacuum ends up as much a chore as vacuuming itself.

We knew finding the best was going to be a down-and-dirty mission. We wanted to get our hands on lots of vacuums and see how they stacked up doing their most fundamental task: sucking up gunk. Before we did that, though, we had to whittle down the list of thousands of machines to 19 of the highest-rated models from the best-known brands in the industry.

We only looked at uprights.
Vacuums come in all shapes and sizes — canister, stick, robotic, hand-held, upright — and comparing all of them would be like comparing an SUV with a coupe with a scooter to find the best car. To narrow the field, we looked at the most popular: uprights.

Compared to other models that are designed for specific purposes, upright vacuums are great at quickly removing dust and dirt from large areas of carpet, while also working well on hardwoods and area rugs. They are the most things to most people.

We looked at vacuums in two price categories: cheap and mid-range.
Our two benchmarks were under $250 and $250-$600. Any model over $600 we nixed. Why? Determining what bells and whistles were a priority really comes down to a matter of preference. Like shopping for a car, we wouldn’t presume that heated leather seats and satellite radio are must-have features for you.

And we picked the flagship models of top vacuum brands per price point.
Within each of the price points, we then dug deeper to see which models stood out. Some vacuums, like the Oreck XL Classic, have an avid fan base. (Really! Check out its reviews and you’ll find tons of loyal customers touting this lightweight model as the only vacuum they’ll ever own.) If a model was hands-down the most talked about, it made our list; if a brand didn’t have such a following, we defaulted to its highest-priced model within our two pricing categories — we wanted to put each brand’s top vacuums to the test.

Then we started vacuuming.
On medium-pile carpet, then on hardwood, we measured how many passes each vacuum took to thoroughly suck up the mess we made. To test each model’s ability with large particles, we evenly spread sand (a few cups) and Cheerios (generous handfuls), and then, sprinkled cinnamon and talcum powder to test fine-grain mayhem. The best vacuums sucked everything up in two passes — one forward, one back. The worst could never quite get the floor clean.

Riccar, which regularly garners ecstatic comments, had the least cleaning power of all 19 vacuums we tested. It took so many tries to pick up any sand and Cheerios, we took it apart to make sure we’d assembled it correctly. (We had.)

It may have a loyal following, but the Riccar’s performance didn’t impress us during testing. Note the large trail of debris left behind after the Riccar’s initial pass on hardwood.

The Kenmore Elite, by comparison, had great cleaning power, which at first we thought was the result of its “dirt sensor” — it sounded fancy, but turns out it’s just another way to raise or lower the brush depending on carpet height. Gimmicky marketing, but overall a great vacuum.

We also put each model through an obstacle course: multiple tables and chairs that mimicked the layout of a small room. We took each vacuum for a spin, requiring them to make at least two sharp, 90-degree turns in both directions, and to squeeze through the narrow slots between furniture. If it cornered like it was on rails and wasn’t too heavy to turn on a dime before bumping into something, we were impressed.

One of the key features for increased maneuverability is some form of swiveling joint between the body and the cleaning head; some vacuums do this better than others. Looks were deceiving with the Miele Dynamic U1 Twist: It seemed much bulkier than some of the more slender swivelers, but its patented SwivelNeck was something to behold — it handled each corner like a dream. The Shark Professional Rotator, on the other hand, looked sleek, but lacked control. (It also came with dangling accessories — so many that there is a special rolling caddy! — that dropped tools all over.)

Compared to the Miele Dynamic U1 Twist (top), the Shark Professional Rotator (bottom) felt wobbly and out of control.

Our Picks for Best Vacuum Cleaner
Our unanimous top pick was Hoover’s Air Cordless Lift for its excellent cleaning power and maneuverability. We were stunned that our only cordless model went straight to the top of the list. Most agree that cordless models aren’t quite there yet in terms of power (Sir James Dyson bought a battery company in 2015, but even he said not to expect battery-operated Dysons “for a few years”), yet this little Hoover defies the trend. It’s everything you want in an upright, and there’s no cord to trip you up.

It offers only two settings: carpet or no carpet, plus a “boost” button for more cleaning power, though both settings worked well without boosting. On carpeted floor, the Air Cordless Lift picked up both large and small particles, and never needed more than two passes. On hardwoods, it took another pass or two, but still sucked up every Cheerio and plowed through every pile of sand we put in its path. Then we turned on the boost and bingo: hardwood performance was just as good as carpet.

The Hoover Air Cordless Lift made quick work of our messes on both carpet and hardwood, and its maneuverability made navigating around furniture a breeze.

It maneuvered around our test furniture without a single collision in a way that can only be described as “zippy.” Granted, this pep did cause some weird handling in large expanses of carpet — it kept trying to maneuver even when we wanted it to keep pointing straight ahead. If you need it to run circles around Grandma’s curio cabinet or your 12-piece dining set, this vacuum’s maneuverability has you covered. Wide-open rooms might be frustrating — if that sounds like your home, we recommend the Oreck XL Classic, our best carpet pick, or the Samsung VU7000 Motion Sync, our pick for hardwood……….”

(For more please follow the link to the original article)

Best Vacuum Cleaners: Summed Up
Vacuum Cleaners                                                          Best For…
Hoover Air Cordless Lift                                                  Cleaning Power
Oreck XL Classic                                                            Carpet
Samsung VU7000 Motion Sync                                        Bare Floors
Bissell CleanView 9595A                                                 Budget
Miele Dynamic U1 Twist                                                 Luxury
Dyson Ball Animal                                                          Maneuverability
Kenmore Elite                                                                Kenmore Brand
Electrolux Precision Brushroll Clean                                  Accessories

Did You Know?
Cleaning power is more complicated than your vacuum manufacturer tells you.
Historically, manufacturers and their marketers say a vacuum’s cleaning power is the amperage of its motor. Not so, according to Energy Star. It found a minimal correlation between power and cleaning performance — cleaning head design, brush mechanisms, and other design elements are more important; filtration and dust removal are independent of power, too. While a vacuum might tout 12 amps of cleaning power, that doesn’t really tell you much.

It really comes down to suction and airflow (measured in cubic feet per minute, or CFMs). In vacuums, strong suction is created by air passing quickly and unrestricted through an intake port. Now, for a bit of physics: Since the speed of the fan is constant, so is the amount of air passing through the vacuum. No matter the size of the intake port, the same number of air particles need to pass through — the smaller the port, the more quickly air particles will move. This increase in airspeed decreases pressure, which results in greater suction. (This is why narrow vacuum attachments can pick up heavier dirt particles than wider ones.)

The tricky thing with airflow ratings is that most upright makers don’t actually list them — they only list amps — so you have to look at how the vacuums are made. There are two basic designs of upright vacuums: direct air and bypass.

We didn’t weigh in on the bagged vs. bagless debate.
Both designs have been proven to clean well, so one isn’t necessarily better than the other. It’s a matter of preference. Bagless vacuums offer less waste (and save you money since you aren’t buying replacements), but some say you have to empty them more than bagged vacuums. Folks with severe allergies will want to go for a bagged model though: The bags seal, trapping dust and allergens.

But if you have asthma or allergies, you’ll want to take more precaution.
The best thing to do if you have asthma or allergies is to live without carpet — carpets are notorious for capturing dust, pollen, and other irritating particles. If that’s not a possibility, regular vacuuming becomes even more important.

Second, while everything we found pointed to bagged vacuums as being the better option for allergies, Dr. Rivera-Mariani warns that standard bags easily get tiny tears that allow leakage. If you have a model with bags, replacements with electrostatic properties (these are available for most major vacuums) help keep pesky particles contained. (The electrostatic causes the dust particles to stick together, so they’re less likely to escape.)

And last, Dr. Rivera-Mariani strongly recommends a sealed HEPA filter. There are less stringent forms of filtration, like the basic sort all vacuums have (including our Hoover top pick), which absorb dust, but don’t capture pollen or pet dander. These are generally fine for most people, but if you’re sensitive to irritants, HEPA is the way to go. Dr. Rivera-Mariana goes as far to recommend HEPA filtration even if you have no respiratory issues. Allergies can build up over time, and symptoms may show up suddenly in previously non-allergic individuals.”

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We hope you enjoyed reading this review – please remember that only excerpts have been used. Please feel free to follow the link above and read the full review.

Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

 

The Importance of Dust Control

Here are a couple or articles on the importance of dust control. Enjoy the read and have a great day!

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7 Ways Dust Control Improves Composite Manufacturing Operations

Nilfisk

“For composite manufacturers, dust is a constant. Whether you make aircraft wings, car fenders, or tennis rackets, chances are if you look around your facility, you’ll see plenty of dust.

Because it’s everywhere, dust can affect many different aspects of your operations, especially if it’s not properly controlled. In that way, controlling your dust is like properly hydrating your body. If you’re hydrated, all of your body systems can function at their peak. If you’re dehydrated, your other systems won’t work well at all.

Let’s look at seven ways dust control can improve your composite manufacturing operations across the board.

1. Reduced risk of cross-contamination
Composites manufacturing is highly sensitive to contamination. Dust that becomes airborne can travel to and interfere with other processes and products. This can quickly increase the size of your scrap pile. By controlling dust at the source, you can ensure that it doesn’t affect what’s happening in other areas of your plant.

2. Improved product quality
In addition to contaminating processes and products, dust also has an immediate and negative impact on how your equipment functions. Dust control will help you keep your equipment working in top shape, which means your products will continue to reflect the quality your company is known for providing.

3. Lower equipment maintenance costs
Over time, if dust is allowed to accumulate, it can cause wear and tear on your equipment. This not only affects product quality, but also increases the cost of maintaining your equipment.

4. Less downtime due to equipment breakdowns
In the worst case scenario, dust accumulation can cause your equipment to break down entirely. This means not only emergency maintenance, which is much more expensive than scheduled maintenance, but you might have to replace the equipment entirely. And, of course, if your equipment breaks down, your production line has to stop, and every minute of downtime equals a dip in your bottom line.

5. Improved compliance
Pretty much all dust in composites manufacturing facilities is combustible. And composites manufacturers are being targeted by OSHA for dust-related violations. By implementing OSHA’s recommended methods for dust control, you can keep your company on your inspector’s good side.

Composites manufacturers also need to be aware of OSHA’s new final rule on exposure to silica dust. Many composite raw materials and molded products contain silica, which can have long-term adverse effects on health. The American Composites Manufacturers Association (ACMA) has published a study to help composites manufacturers comply with OSHA requirements. Learn more from Industrial Equipment News and on the ACMA website.

6. Reduced risk of a dust-related fire or explosion
Of course, the main reason to comply with dust standards isn’t just to avoid OSHA penalties. It’s to ensure your entire operation doesn’t go up in smoke. Keeping your dust level below the recommended threshold is the best way to protect your facility against dust-related fires and explosions.

7. Improved worker health and safety
Fires, explosions, and silica are just a few of the dust-related risks to worker health. Many composite manufacturing processes produce other particles small enough to be respirable. Certain types of dust are also slippery, which can lead to falls. Overall, a clean facility is a safe and healthy facility.”

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Dust Collection: Expense or Investment?

BY – Karen Wood

Composites World 

Well-engineered dust control systems not only improve shop air quality but also boost productivity, prolong machine life and save energy.

Fifteen years ago, dust management in composites manufacturing operations was somewhat unsophisticated. A common solution to the dust generated by cutting, trimming, sanding and grinding was to cut a hole in the shop wall and install an exhaust fan. Although simple and relatively inexpensive, this method did little but improve visibility. Today, governments mandate particulate emission control, both inside and outside the plant. Respirable dust, which is classified as less than or equal to 5 µm in diameter, is small enough to penetrate deep into the lungs, with serious health consequences. But the cost of uncontrolled dust goes beyond worker health. Inhalable dust, which averages 10 µm in diameter, not only can get trapped in the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract and irritate eyes and skin, but it also can build up on machinery components, causing premature wear. Moreover, dust can impact product quality as well. In this respect, says Ken Abbott, managing member of Envirosystems LLC (Tucson, Ariz.), “the composites industry is unique. It’s very sophisticated in terms of materials and techniques, and with that sophistication comes an increased sensitivity to contamination.” If allowed to float freely through the air, dust from carbon fiber, for example, can corrode surrounding aluminum components, and a small amount of any contaminant on a faying surface can interfere with adhesion in bonded part assemblies. As a result, the industry’s overall perception of dust control has begun to change.

“Long perceived as simply a cost of doing business, companies are now realizing that dust collection equipment — when done right — can be an investment,” says Abbot. “Our customers expect dust collection to help improve product quality, reduce scrap due to contaminated parts, lower housekeeping and equipment maintenance costs, and boost worker productivity.”

MANDATE FOR DUST MANAGEMENT
Managing particulate as minute as one-twelfth the width of a human hair is challenging: The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Admin. (OSHA), for example, requires that worker exposure levels for respirable dust be limited to just 5 mg/m³ averaged over an eight-hour period. Without dust control, “most people using a sander or grinder will quickly exceed the OSHA level,” says D. Scott McConnell, vice president, Dustcontrol Inc. (Wilmington, N.C.). The key is to investment in what dust control system designers call an engineered solution.

Today, dust control systems are rarely off-the-shelf products. Instead, each is customized to meet the requirements of the customer’s application, and there are many variations from which to choose. While a well-designed system can have a positive affect on the bottom line, the opposite also is true: “You can put an inexpensive system together and collect dust with it, but if it is not done correctly, it can be very expensive to operate,” warns Abbott. System design involves consideration of factors that impact the effectiveness of dust containment technology, including the dust collection method and vacuum systems (fan size, motor power rating and filter media) — the selection of which depends on careful calculation of application-specific process variables, such as air volume, capture velocity and static pressure.

ENGINEERING FOR EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY
One of the most important variables in dust control system design is air volume. To determine the air volume required for a particular application, the width of the space to be controlled is multiplied by the height, resulting in a room cross-section value expressed in square feet (ft²). This cross-sectional area is multiplied by the required speed of air movement through the room in feet per minute (fpm) to calculate air volume, as expressed in cubic feet per minute (cfm). Therefore, airflow speed of 50 fpm in a room that measures 40 ft wide by 10 ft high (12m by 3m) would require fan volume of 20,000 cfm.

When selecting a fan, says Abbott, “static pressure will determine whether or not the fan will perform the function for which it was chosen.” Static pressure (SP) — or resistance to airflow — essentially rates how much resistance to airflow can be introduced (by dust buildup, filter media and/or ductwork, for example) without affecting the air volume rating. “Using a fan with the incorrect SP rating will result in a system that, at best, will cost more than it should to operate or, at worst, won’t be able to do the job at all,” says Abbott.

“As an example, a fan with a rating of 10,000 cfm at 0.75-inch SP may only use a 5-hp motor to effectively move air, at that static pressure, through a paint booth or other type of low-resistance system,” says Abbott. If this same fan and paint booth were used to collect dust, however, “the fan will be all but useless before dust is even collected because a new filter provides 0.75-inch SP right out of the box,” he contends, noting that “a 10,000-cfm fan suitable for a typical dust collection system will need to achieve its full rated volume at a resistance closer to 3 inches SP or more to be effective and would require 10 hp or more.”

A large factor that affects system design is the size of ductwork that might be required to transport dust from the source to its collection point. Duct size in cross-section directly affects system performance and is based on what particulate will be collected and the volume of air that must be moved. According to Donaldson Torit (Minneapolis, Minn.), which offers cartridge- and bag-type dust collectors, ductwork that’s too small tends to restrict airflow, resulting in pressure loss. This reduces the air volume and increases energy use. If the ducts are too large compared to the air volume, air velocity is reduced. Dust capture will be poor and dust will not be pulled through the ductwork.

A key to system efficiency, then, is to minimize static pressure. Assuming an average cost of industrial power of approximately $0.08 (USD) per kilowatt hour (KwH), operating one 5-hp fan for a single shift, five days a week, for 52 weeks would cost $805 per year. If, due to ducting or other installation requirements, the fan needs 30 hp to move the same air volume, the cost would be $4,238 per year. “The most cost-effective method of eliminating airborne contamination is to confine it to one area where it can be isolated and filtered using the least amount of air,” says Abbott. Strategies include locating the dust collector as close as possible to the area it is filtering to reduce ductwork and, therefore, the fan’s horsepower requirement. Whenever possible, the filtered air should be exhausted back into the plant to retain conditioned air — heated air in the winter or chilled air in the summer — to minimize building heating and cooling costs.

SELECTING A COLLECTION STRATEGY
Given these design constraints, dust control system manufacturers have developed three basic collection strategies: whole-room, containment booth and source-point capture. Strategy selection is based on the size, type and number of the customer’s dust-generating machines.

Whole-room systems are often the only practical option when an individual piece of equipment is massive, such as a gantry-style CNC router. The whole-room approach typically involves a room built around a machine to reduce noise and dust. The dust collector, which can be located outside the building or inside, pulls air from the work area into an inlet device — typically mounted along the wall at the narrow end of the room. The air is directed through filter media where contaminants are trapped and clean air is exhausted back into the work area or outside the building. These systems can involve extensive ductwork or, in some cases, be free of ductwork.

Envirosystems’ trademarked AirWall dust collection equipment, for example, is self-contained, eliminating the need for ductwork and greatly reducing static pressure. “By saving 2 to 3 inches in static pressure with no ductwork, we can move the same amount of air with a 5-hp fan as a ducted system [can move] with a 40-hp fan,” Abbott claims.

The system reportedly removes more than 99.99 percent of airborne sub-micron particles (down to 0.5 micron in size), which surpasses current OSHA requirements. A high-velocity, reverse pulse-jet cleaning system automatically cleans cartridge filters (see “Filtration Facts” at the end of this article, on p. 3).

Given a room size of 20-ft by 30-ft by 10-ft (6.1m by 9.1m by 3m), a complete air change every minute would require air to be pulled through the room at 30 fpm and could demand a fan volume as high as 6,000 cfm in a ducted system. In a duct-free system, the same air volume reportedly can be achieved with a 5-hp fan. The average cost of the duct-free system would be about $15,000.

Where room size is larger than the dust-generating machinery, the latter can be located within a contamination control booth (CCB), a three-sided, ceilinged structure with integral lighting, open on the fourth side for easy access. “Booth sizes can be as small as 10-ft by 10-ft or as large as 130-ft by 50-ft [39.6m by 15.2m],” explains Ronnie Frees, president of Frees Inc. (Shreveport, La.). “Tub and shower manufacturing operations, for instance, typically require 40-ft by 40-ft [12.2m by 12.2m] containment rooms.”

An exhaust fan with relatively high airflow, typically in the 140 fpm to 160 fpm range, draws air out of the CCB, creating negative pressure within the CCB that draws air into the booth’s open end, preventing dust from escaping. A grinding booth for two to four workers measuring 22 ft wide by 7.5 ft high by 8 ft deep (6.7m by 2.3m by 2.4m) would require a 20-hp to 30-hp fan motor to pull the 160 fpm necessary to generate an air velocity of 22,000 cfm. The system would cost approximately $36,000.

Frees and other companies offer an additional “air curtain” feature that can be adapted to both large CCBs and room-size exhaust systems. A blower system is positioned at the front edges of the open booth or on the side opposite the collectors in room-size applications (see photo, this page). These blowers generate a high-velocity positive airflow angled toward the collectors to reinforce transport velocity within the booth.

To create its air curtain, Frees’ trademarked Dust-Free system uses a “push-pull” recirculation method. An exhaust fan draws dust into a dust-separation chamber at the back of the CCB where a filter tube sheet traps up to 99 percent of the airborne dust particles. The clean air then is channeled through ductwork to the open end of the chamber where it provides positive airflow, pushing the air inside the room back toward the dust collector inlet. The system uses digital direct control (DDC) to save energy. “When workers are in the containment area working, the system is on, and when they stop working, the system will gradually slow down until it is off or nearly off,” says Frees.

The source-point capture strategy can take several forms and becomes a practical option when the dust source can be localized and is especially useful when large volumes of dust are being generated by one source. “The source-point capture system offers advantages for operations where there are many different machines operating in a large space with no way to effectively group and enclose them for effective dust control,” says Abbott.

For stationary equipment — both large and small — source-point capture can be accomplished via an overhead or side-draft hood. For handheld tools, there are two options: The down draft table, which draws dust down through a perforated tabletop, does not impair tool use, but it is best used with smaller parts because large parts can block airflow and create pockets of dust-filled air. Capture also can be accomplished by affixing a suction casing, or shroud, and vacuum hose as near as possible to the dust-generating portion of the tool. (See photos, this page) Ductwork, typically located overhead, connects the dust collection unit to suction outlets from which individual hoses can be dropped down to the work area. Usually located near or along compressed air “drops,” hoses are typically looped with and run parallel to the pneumatic airline or electrical power cord for easy handling. Automatic valves can be used so that suction only occurs when the tool is actually in use.

A typical source-point capture system designed with four drops to accommodate two to four workers operating vacuum-assisted, heavy-duty sanders, for example, would require a 10-hp turbo pump and cost approximately $18,000.”

For the full report, please follow the link to the site.

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.