Sedulitas was formed in 2017 by a merger with Kemtra, a company in operation since 2007 within the specialised training and software development space.


Sedulitas seeks to partner with companies that provide innovative, cutting edge solutions to workplace hazard sampling that can provide you with instantaneous results allowing you to keep your employees safe in real time.

We offer you comprehensive Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Management solutions including specialised Occupational Hygiene services uniquely tailored for your business. We are well aware of the frustration businesses face when compiling HSE reports for company and legislative purposes, with someone having to spend many hours in front of a computer. We are equally aware of the amount of energy required to establish HSE programs within the workplace, especially when this isn’t your core business.

Our aim is to build long term partnerships with companies in an effort to establish, build, entrench and enhance HSE solutions to improve the company bottom line – a healthy worker is a productive, happy worker which helps to ensure long term business viability and sustainability. Sedulitas has the necessary set of skills to assist any size organisation in improving its profitability through the sound integration of HSE into the production process, creating harmony between production and HSE needs.


Exposure Assessments
Through the application of international best practise, we are able to perform detailed assessments of both worker and public exposure to health risks as identified from the health risk assessment process.

Instrumentation and PPE
We provide specialised sampling instrumentation as a turnkey solution for stressors such as dust and both ionising and non-ionising radiation as well as specialised PPE such as Powered Air Purifying Respirators.

Risk Assessments
Through the application of international best practise, we are able to perform detailed assessments of both worker and public exposure to health risks as identified from the health risk assessment process.

Assisting you with setting up HSE audit protocols i.e. ISO/OHSAS/Legal and performing audits to test compliance.

View Training Courses Available
Would you like to become an Occupational Hygienist? We can get you started on that journey through international certification via the Occupational Hygiene Training Association courses presented by us.

Radiation Protection
Comprehensive radiation management services offered including the compilation of Radiation Protection Programmes and the quantification of radiation exposure.

Custom Software Applications
We can create software applications that can help with automation of repetitive data tasks, managing huge bulks of data or just for easy handling.

Hazard Maps
We compile hazard maps from data assessment data to allow for easy identification of hazards and hazardous areas within a working environment.

We can create a software application that helps with the easy input of data together with a database in order to manage and store your data safely.

We can help with user specific dashboards from any data source. Dashboards can be made up of different graphs such as bar graphs and pie charts. Dashboards are created to change in line of criteria selected.

Security Services
Assessing and developing solutions to company security risks utilising the latest technology developed to client specifications.




Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Lithium – Update

Last week we posted an article from 2016 on Lithium mining, let’s see what developments there have been……

For the full article, follow the link provided.

Lithium - Update

Source –

Profiling the top five largest lithium mining companies in the world

By James Murray 18 Feb 2021

“Global lithium production in 2019 stood at 77,000 tonnes – but as interest in the metal continues to grow, analysts expect worldwide demand will more than double by 2024

Some of the largest lithium mining companies have grown in stature in recent years, as interest in the silvery-white metal grows in tandem with demand for the electric vehicles and consumer electronics whose rechargeable batteries it powers.

But as well as its use in lithium-ion batteries, the highly-reactive and flammable alkali mineral – sometimes referred to as “white gold” – is also used in ceramics and glass, lubricating greases, polymer production, and air treatment.

According to the latest figures from the US Geological Survey (USGS), global lithium production in 2019 stood at 77,000 tonnes.

With battery manufacturing expected to accelerate over the coming years, particularly as electric vehicles become more prevalent in key markets seeking to decarbonise, interest in the metal will continue to grow, and analysts expect worldwide demand will more than double by 2024.

Here, NS Energy profiles the top five largest lithium mining companies in the world.

Top five largest lithium mining companies in the world

1. Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium
Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium, which was founded in 2000, is the world’s largest lithium mining company with a market capitalisation of $27.38bn. It brought in $767.5m in revenue in 2019.

2. Albemarle
Albemarle is a fine chemical manufacturing company based in North Carolina, US, and it operates three divisions – lithium, bromine specialties and catalysts.

Founded in 1994, the firm has grown to establish itself as the second-largest lithium miner in the world with a market capitalisation of $16.73bn as well as bringing in $3.59bn in revenue in 2019.

3. Tianqi Lithium
Tianqi Lithium, which was founded in 1995, is the third-largest lithium miner with a market capitalisation of $11.79bn. Based in Chengdu, China, the firm also raked in $748m in revenue in 2019.

The company claims to hold “world-leading positions” in its major businesses of lithium resource investment, lithium concentrates extraction and the production of advanced lithium speciality compounds.

4. Sociedad Química y Minera
With a market capitalisation of $6.38bn, Sociedad Química y Minera (SQM) is the fourth-largest lithium miner in the world.

Based in Santiago, Chile, the chemical company, which supplies iodine, lithium, and other industrial chemicals, brought in $1.86m in revenue in 2019.

5. Mineral Resources Limited
Mineral Resources was founded in 1993 and is the fifth-largest lithium mining company in the world with a market capitalisation of $5.66bn. It also raked in $1.16bn in revenue in 2019.

The West Australian-headquartered firm’s operations include open-pit mining of iron ore and lithium, as well as lithium hydroxide processing.”



Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.



Not a new article but interesting none the less.

Where Will All the Lithium Needed for Electric Cars Be Mined?

Where Will All the Lithium Needed for Electric Cars Be Mined?
By Tim Nunney

“Many commodity prices are in a slump, but lithium prices are on the rise, driven by the growing demand for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries to supply the electric car market. Tesla plans to produce 500,000 battery-powered vehicles per year by 2020, with batteries supplied by the company’s 13.6 million square foot “gigafactory” which, once completed, will be the world’s second largest building by volume. Tesla may be the most well known electric car manufacturer thanks to the publicity surrounding the gigafactory, but Apple, Google, and Faraday Future are also getting into the electric car market. According to an article on, Apple will be competing directly with Tesla with its own electric car which is expected to be available in 2019, while the start-up Faraday Future is planning a new $1-billion factory in Las Vegas, and is hoping to produce its first car next year. And all these battery factories will demand an estimated 100,000 tons of new lithium carbonate by 2021.

Where will all the lithium come from? Lithium is a poorly concentrated mineral, so traditional hard-rock mining of lithium-bearing pegmatite and spodumene is a costly and time-intensive endeavor. The easiest and least expensive method of obtaining lithium is by the evaporation of highly concentrated lithium brine. Read Lithium Mining Today May Influence What You Drive In the Future to learn more about the brining and hard rock mining methods of obtaining lithium.

North America has only one lithium mine, the Albermarle Silver Peak Mine, and only one U.S. company is currently producing lithium from brine. Most of the world’s lithium comes from brine operations in Chile and a spodumene operation in Australia. China and Argentina are also major lithium producers. Establishing a reliable, diversified supply of lithium is a top priority for technology companies in the United States and Asia, particularly battery suppliers and vehicle manufacturers, and numerous lithium claims have been leased or staked worldwide. Brine operations are under development in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and the United States; spodumene mining operations are under development in Australia, Canada, China, and Finland; a jadarite mining operation is under development in Serbia; and a lithium clay-mining operation is under development in Mexico. (More data available from the U.S. Geological Survey’s 2016 Lithium Mineral Commodity Summary.)

But just because the electric car market is poised to take off doesn’t mean there isn’t room for improvement in the performance of Li-ion cells, for example to increase energy density, reduce weight, decrease costs, and improve recharge times. Understanding the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the electrodes, which is created as the cell charges and discharges, is an area of significant interest, so that it can be controlled and therefore improve cell performance. XPS depth profiling offers a way of chemically characterizing the complex mix that makes up the interphase layer, allowing an identification of the chemistries that comprise the SEI.”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.




Our experience in all aspects of mining, combined with our expertise of local requirements, render us the partner of choice for extensive rehabilitation projects.

We specialise in environmental rehabilitation of mining and exploration sites, along with bioremediation and water treatment for various contaminations.

Nvirobuild also stock environmental products and offer a turnkey zero waste to landfill solution.

With our range of bacterial applications, we offer environmentally friendly solutions to previously costly and complicated projects.

Our civil department enables us to be the perfect contractor for constructing and managing waste facilities on site.



We provide the following rehabilitation services to enable successful rehabilitation outcomes:

As our primary business is ecological rehabilitation, we are focusing to ensure we deliver the best possible solution for every individual project. Nvirobuild ensures that maintenance on the sites is done up to the point of sign off by the DMR or the client. Nvirobuild also ensures successful rehabilitation / demolition of old building structures and excavations.

We are able to take on conveyors, workshops, crushers, office buildings, cement slabs etc. We will supply a quality product and give it off in time, our Civil department combined with our Environmental department can provide a unique solution for client.

Contact us for a quotation on Oil Spill Kits and all relevant absorbents and products used in workshops, offices. Nvirobuild manufactures a ready to use Bioremediation mix, this mix is ready for use as is. We use the product in our own bioremediation process and achieves great success with it.

We can do steel construction on any scale.

Portfolio –




Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Massive eruption at Soufriere St. Vincent

A volcano that has been dormant for 42 years has erupted on Soufriere St. Vincent.  To see the images, please follow the link to the source of the article.


Massive eruption at Soufriere St. Vincent
Image credit: CDEMA. Acquired: April 13, 2021

New massive eruption at Soufriere St. Vincent, SO2 emissions spreading over two continents

Posted by Teo Blašković on April 13, 2021

“A new high-level, major eruption took place at Soufriere St. Vincent volcano at 10:40 UTC on April 13, 2021. The SO2 emissions produced over the past 2 days are now spreading over two continents — South America and Africa. Extremely heavy ash is covering the island of St. Vincent, leaving the nation without electricity.

The pattern of seismicity changed again, with the end of the episodes of high-amplitude tremor 2 to 8 hours apart, the University of West Indies Seismic Research Center (UWI-SRC) said early April 13, 2021.

Three episodes of tremor have been recorded since 06:00 LT on April 13, 2 of them with lower-amplitude, and the third, at about 17:00 LT, was high-amplitude. The episodes continue to coincide with periods of enhanced venting or explosive activity.

Observations indicate that pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) had descended several valleys on the southern and western flanks of the volcano and had reached the sea at Morne Ronde, Larikai, and Trois Loupes Bay.

Extensive damage to vegetation was noted in an area extending from Larikai Bay to Turner Bay on the west coast. No other areas along the coast had been affected by PDCs but villages located on the eastern flank of the volcano had been affected by heavy ashfall.

Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days with the chance of PDCs occurring, UWI-SRC warned just hours before another massive eruption at 10:40 UTC today:

Today’s eruption came on the volcano’s 42nd anniversary of the VEI3 1979 eruption.

A massive explosion and new pyroclastic flows were produced at 08:15 UTC on April 12, with ash cloud reaching approximately 17 km (55 000 feet) above sea level.

Extremely heavy ash has covered the island of St. Vincent since the explosive eruptions began on Friday, April 9, leaving the majority of St. Vincent and the Grenadines without power on April 11, 2021.

New observations show changes to the summit crater with a possible smaller vent inside the new crater.

The black/dark areas to the west (left) of the summit are the pyroclastic flow deposits from earlier explosive events.

Geological summary
Soufrière St. Vincent is the northernmost and youngest volcano on St. Vincent Island. The NE rim of the 1.6 km (1 mile) wide summit crater is cut by a crater formed in 1812.

The crater itself lies on the SW margin of a larger 2.2 km (1.3 miles) wide Somma crater, which is breached widely to the SW as a result of slope failure.

Frequent explosive eruptions since about 4 300 years ago produced pyroclastic deposits of the Yellow Tephra Formation, which blanket much of the island.

The first historical eruption took place in 1718; it and the 1812 eruption produced major explosions.

Much of the northern end of the island was devastated by a major eruption in 1902 that coincided with the catastrophic Mont Pelée eruption on Martinique.

A lava dome was emplaced in the summit crater in 1971 during a strictly effusive eruption, forming an island in a lake that filled the crater prior to an eruption in 1979.

The lake was then largely ejected during a series of explosive eruptions, and the dome was replaced with another. (GVP)”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Mountain Research LLC


DustWatch has partnered with Mountain Research, LLC in the USA. DustWatch single bucket ASTM D1739 (2017) units will be manufactured in the USA for distribution purposes within the USA and other countries.

Mountain Research LLC

Mountain Research, LLC (Mountain Research) is a full service turnkey environmental and drilling services corporation founded in 1985. DustWatch is excited to partner with Mountain Research, please visit their website for more information

If you need to make use of the expertise from Mountain Research in South Africa, then you can contact

Mountain Research


Drilling Services
Mountain Research offers the latest technology in environmental and geotechnical drilling services for site investigation, remediation, foundation design and construction. Our drilling rigs include a Geoprobe® Model 6600 and a Geoprobe® Model 5400. We recently added an Acker® Soil-Scout, increasing the capabilities of our fleet.

Mountain Research also uses a ChemGrout® Model CG555 multi-purpose grouting machine for monitoring well abandonment in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements.

Mountain Research’s drilling personnel hold certifications for states within the Mid-Atlantic region for drilling and installation of monitoring wells. All drilling personnel and inspectors meet the requirements set forth by OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120 and have completed the required 40 hour OSHA health and safety course.

Environmental Consulting
Mountain Research provides a wide variety of environmental and engineering services in-house, including owning our own drill rigs and environmental laboratories supported by our team of professional geologists, professional engineers, environmental scientists and chemists.

Our employees perform Phase I and Phase II Environmental Site Assessments, Site Characterizations, Act 2 Closures, Remediation System Construction, Installations, Operation and Maintenance, Underground Storage Tank Services, Air Quality Assessments, Spill Response and Engineering Services throughout the states of Pennsylvania and the rest of the Mid-Atlantic region.

Our expertise is performing our services, quickly, quietly and cost effectively with an eye towards making sure projects are successfully concluded in the best interest of our clients.



Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.



Chryso are suppliers of emulsified dust lubrication systems that aid in the coalescing, stablisation and suppression of rising dust particles and spores.


DustWatch can provide quotations for this product if required and also provide advice on optimized application for different area requirements. Gravel Roads, Haul Roads, Unpaved open areas, Stockpiles and Berms. On site advice is available for site specific requirements and optimization.

Chryso Eco Dust 200D

Chryso have a range of environmentally friendly products that can be used, and the recommended usage of one of these products, the ECO Dust 200 D, is shown below.

Eco Dust 200 D

The following are typical areas where our product can be used:
Open exposed areas
Gravel roads
Farm roads
Gravel airstrips
Quarry roads
Stockpile dumps
Mine dumps

General Application Guidelines

1 litre of solution per m2 is used to apply the product to the area
Note that the 100% solution works well for sealing a stockpile or an exposed surface, provided the liquid can mix slightly with the top layer of material and be distributed evenly.
A 43% solution also works well to seal off a stockpile or open exposed area, but more quantity of solution is needed per area, but the same amount of product. So that concentration should depend on how much water is needed to make the product bind with the surface layer of the stockpile or exposed surface. Runoff of the product during application should be prevented.
The mixing with the top layer of the surface is required to keep it in place on a sloped surface, and also provides additional stabilisation as the top layer is less likely to slide down.
The use of the product on a road at any percentage requires the surface to be compacted to achieve the mixing with the top layer. Vehicles travelling regularly will achieve this. The smoother the road the better as this prevent pooling of the solution in parts of the road.
When vehicles travel on the road, the whole road should be used, to prevent the middle of the road not being compacted and resulting in loose material.
Planned roadways will enable the product to be used efficiently.
Walkways should also be clearly demarcated to enable exposed areas to remain undisturbed after the application of the product.
Application Method for Regular Maintenance to decrease road dust significantly

Four applications at 15% in one day and one application per day thereafter at 5% solution. Application rate of 1 litre of solution per m2.

Long term application. (30 days or more)

Application of 85% solution at 1 litre per m2. This is a once off application and can last up to 90 days.

Factors that will influence the intervals between maintenance applications and life time of the surface:

Quality of base material
Climate conditions
Volumes and type of traffic


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Common Mining Equipment

The 3rd article from ThermoFisher’s Top 10 list – Common Mining Equipment.  Have a great day!

Common Mining Equipment

Link to the original article –

New to the Mining Industry? Make Sure You Know the Most Common Types of Mining Equipment
By Marlene Gasdia-Cochrane, Editor

“Working in the mining industry can be a dangerous place if you don’t know what you’re doing. Regular training is essential and understanding the machines you’re working near or operating plays an important role in all aspects of the industry.

Each type of mining equipment comes with its own set of mining activities. The most common types of mining equipment vary depending whether the work is being carried out above or below ground or mining for gold, metals, coal or crude oil. From drilling machines to excavators, crushing and grinding equipment – the mining industry comes complete with all the right tools. New to the job and want to find out what it all means? Here’s a few of the industry’s most common types of equipment and why they’re important for the job.

Mining Drills

Probably one of the most common pieces of mining equipment, drills are an important part of the underground mining operation. Underground mining is carried out when rocks or minerals are located at a fair distance beneath the ground. But then they need to be brought to the surface. Underground specialized mining equipment such as trucks, loaders, diggers etc. are used to excavate the material and are normally hauled to the surface with skips or lifts for further processing. Drilling is normally required to place explosive charges to liberate the minerals from the overburden material. Underground mining techniques have progressed significantly over the past years, including using remote controlled machinery.

Drills assist in creating holes descending underground. If miners are required to work underground, drills can also be used in ensuring the holes are large enough to serve as a portal for miners to enter. Directional drilling is also a type of mining technology where miners will use the tools and certain methods to drill wells.

Blasting Tools

Blasting tools are an essential part of the mining industry and are used to break down and fracture materials (usually rocks) by use of a calculated amount of explosive to liberate the sought-after product from the waste material. Blasting is also used to remove pockets of unwanted material that are preventing mining machines and personnel to get to the seam containing the materials of interest. Unmanned drill rigs will drill holes at pre-determined depths and positions on a blast face to ensure that a particular size fraction is achieved and that little of the overburden is liberated with the blasting to reduce material handling costs. Once this process has been completed, an excavator is used to recover the blasted rocks and other debris that has been dislodged during the blasting. The material is then conveyed to a central conveying system which will take it directly to the surface or via a skip and hoist system.

Blasting equipment is used for both underground and open pit mining operations and is known to be one of the most hazardous aspects of the job.

For mining operations to be successful good blast designs are absolutely vital as poor practices and excessive explosives can result in damage to rock structures causing unwanted caving.

Earth Movers

For above ground mining, earth movers are utilised regularly to carry loose soil and earth from one location to another. Earth movers play an important role in the mining industry because the equipment is specifically designed to work on large earth-moving and mining projects for a faster and more practical process. Used for digging, pushing and transporting the earth, they require the specialised skills of an operator.

Earth movers are heavy mining equipment that the industry would struggle to survive without and work hand in hand with bulldozers. Earth movers are normally used for removing overburden or waste material, which enables the excavators to remove the material or mineral of interest. Bulldozers are used to move this overburden material around to create a working surface for other equipment such as haul trucks and excavators.

Crushing Equipment

As its name suggests, crushing equipment is used to crush rock and stone. Designed to achieve maximum productivity and high reduction rate, mining crushing equipment can come in a variety of different types for a range of jobs.

Crushing equipment is specially configured to break down the hard rock matter or gravel to a manageable size for transportation or conveying. They are valuable pieces of equipment in the industry because they reduce the costs associated with handling of larger sized material and also ensure efficient liberation of elements of interest in downstream processing of the material. In an opencast or strip mining operation, the run of mine (ROM) material is normally transported to the primary crusher by haul trucks, and in underground mining operations it is conveyed to the primary crusher. Crushing equipment is important to the mining process because it reduces the use of precious excavated resources and eliminates the amount of material on site.

Feeding, Conveying, and On-line Elemental Analysis Equipment

Once the excavator transporter brings the raw material to the crusher for processing, the feeding device feeds the material into the crusher and in return the material is screened and all oversized material is recirculated back to the crusher to ensure correct size fraction is obtained. This weighbelt ‘feeding’ equipment, usually referred to as “Weighfeeders,” conveys and controls the feedrate into the crusher to improve crusher efficiency.

Feeding and conveying equipment are necessary to the mining industry to move and control material flow within a mining and processing operation to facilitate efficient operation of equipment and determine operating rates and yields. In some instances secondary crushing is required prior to processing of the material. Once the material is at the correct size, fraction processing can occur which could include, milling, flotation, leaching etc.

Belt scale systems let you monitor production output and inventory, or regulate product loadout, while providing vital information for the effective management and efficient operation of your business. There are elemental crossbelt analyzers that provide real-time quality analysis of critical process streams to facilitate sorting, blending and out-of-seam dilution control. While materials are on the troughed belt conveyor, an automatic sampling system (which could be single or multi-stage) can take a representative sample directly from the moving material stream. (Take a look at this video to see how a sampling system works.) Weighbelt Feeders that convey and control feedrate accurately and reliably can reduce material consumption, help maintain blend consistency, and increase profits.

Flow measurement systems provide continuous, real-time flow measurement of free-falling materials or dense phase, pneumatically conveyed bulk solids, which is important to ensure and maintain product quality and process efficiency.

All these common mining tools are crucial to the industry and assist in getting the job done efficiently and cost effectively.”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Fools Gold – Pyrite

The next article from ThermoFishers top 10 list!  Enjoy!

Pyrite - Fools Gold

Link to the original article –

Pyrite: The Real Story Behind “Fool’s Gold”
By Ali Somarin

““Fool’s Gold” is technically known as pyrite or iron sulfide (FeS2) and is one of the most common sulfide minerals. Sulfide minerals are a group of inorganic compounds containing sulfur and one or more elements. Minerals are defined by their chemistry and crystalline structure. Minerals that have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures are called polymorphs.

Pyrite and marcasite, for example, are polymorphs because they are both iron sulfide, but each has a distinct structure. Minerals can also have the same crystalline structure but different elemental compositions, but it’s the crystal structure that determines the mineral’s physical characteristics.

In addition to pyrite, common sulfides are chalcopyrite (copper iron sulfide), pentlandite (nickel iron sulfide), and galena (lead sulfide). The sulfide class also includes the selenides, the tellurides, the arsenides, the antimonides, the bismuthinides, and the sulfosalts. Many sulfides are economically important as metal ores.

Pyrite is called “Fool’s Gold” because it resembles gold to the untrained eye. While pyrite has a brass-yellow color and metallic luster similar to gold, pyrite is brittle and will break rather than bend as gold does. Gold leaves a yellow streak, while pyrite’s streak is brownish black. If you want to know more about how to tell real gold from “Fool’s Gold,” watch this video produced by the University of Knottingham.

Pyrite is so named from the Greek word for fire (pyr) because it can create sparks for starting a fire when struck against metal or stone. This property made it useful for firearms at one time but this application is now obsolete. Pyrite was once a source of sulfur and sulfuric acid, but today most sulfur is obtained as a byproduct of natural gas and crude oil processing.

Today pyrite is sometimes sold as a novelty item or costume jewelry. But pyrite isn’t entirely useless; in fact it’s a good way to find real gold because the two form together under similar conditions. Gold can even occur as inclusions inside pyrite, sometimes in mineable quantities depending on how effectively the gold can be recovered.

Pyrite has long been investigated for its semiconductor properties. Learn about studies underway to develop pyrite as a material to make solar cells.

Pyrite is found in a wide variety of geological settings, from igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock to hydrothermal mineral deposits, as well as in coal beds and as a replacement mineral in fossils. Pyrite can be either disseminated throughout igneous rock or concentrated in layers, depending on depositional mechanism and environment. Pyrite forms in sedimentary rocks in oxygen-poor environments in the presence of iron and sulfur. These are usually organic environments, such as coal and black shale, where decaying organic material consumes oxygen and releases sulfur. Pyrite often replaces plant debris and shells to create pyrite fossils or flattened discs called pyrite dollars.

In calcite and quartz veins, pyrite oxidizes to iron oxides or hydroxides such as limonite, an indicator that there is pyrite in the underlying rock. Such oxidized zones are called “gossan,” which appears as rusty zones at the surface. Gossans can be a good drilling targets for gold and other precious or base metals.

Pyrite is unstable and oxidizes easily, which is an issue in controlling acid mine drainage. Pyrite is a widespread natural source of arsenic, which can leach into ground-water aquifers when geologic strata containing pyrite are exposed to the air and water, during coal mining for example. Acid mine drainage and groundwater contamination requires close monitoring to ensure that it has been neutralized before being returned to the earth.

A question: If you have a shiny and tiny golden color spot in your sample, how would you identify it? Is it gold? Is it pyrite? Portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers are an important tool in this effort. In 2-3 seconds, you can identify that grain using a portable XRF. Isn’t that amazing? In addition to being used for exploration and mining applications, XRF analyzers can be used to monitor elemental contaminants at mine sites and in waste streams. XRF analyzers are capable of quantifying a wide range of elements, including sulfur, lead, and arsenic.”


Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Cement Manufacturing Process

Following on from the previous article from ThermoFishcer on the Top 10 Mining articles of 2020, here is the full article on The Cement Manufacturing Process.

Happy reading!

Cement Manufacturing Process


Link to the original article –

The Cement Manufacturing Process
By Darrell Leetham

“Different minerals need to be mined in order to make cement. Limestone (containing the mineral calcite), clay, and gypsum make up most of it. The US Geological Survey notes that cement raw materials, especially limestone, are geologically widespread and (luckily) abundant. Domestic cement production has been increasing steadily, from 66.4 million tons in 2010 to about 80.5 million tons of Portland cement in 2014 according to the U.S. Geological Survey 2015 Cement Mineral Commodity Summary. The overall value of sales of cement was about $8.9 billion, most of which was used to make an estimated $48 billion worth of concrete. Most construction projects involve some form of concrete.

There are more than twenty types of cement used to make various specialty concrete, however the most common is Portland cement.

Cement manufacturing is a complex process that begins with mining and then grinding raw materials that include limestone and clay, to a fine powder, called raw meal, which is then heated to a sintering temperature as high as 1450 °C in a cement kiln. In this process, the chemical bonds of the raw materials are broken down and then they are recombined into new compounds. The result is called clinker, which are rounded nodules between 1mm and 25mm across. The clinker is ground to a fine powder in a cement mill and mixed with gypsum to create cement. The powdered cement is then mixed with water and aggregates to form concrete that is used in construction.

Clinker quality depends on raw material composition, which has to be closely monitored to ensure the quality of the cement. Excess free lime, for example, results in undesirable effects such as volume expansion, increased setting time or reduced strength. Several laboratory and online systems can be employed to ensure process control in each step of the cement manufacturing process, including clinker formation.

Several laboratory and online systems can be employed to ensure process control

Laboratory X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) systems are used by cement QC laboratories to determine major and minor oxides in clinker, cement and raw materials such as limestone, sand and bauxite. Read Analysis of Clinker and Cement with Thermo Scientific ARL OPTIM’X WDXRF Sequential Spectrometer to learn why XRF is the technique of choice for elemental analysis in cement industry. Combination X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) systems accomplish both chemical phase analysis for a more complete characterization of the sample. Clinker phase analysis ensures consistent clinker quality. Such instrumentation can be fitted with several XRF monochromators for major oxides analysis and a compact diffraction (XRD) system which has the capability of measuring quartz in raw meal, free lime (CaO) and clinker phases as well as calcite (CaCO3) in cement.

Read XRF/XRD Combined Instrumentation Can Provide Complete Quality Control of Clinker and Cement to learn more about technology that combines the advantages of both XRF and XRD together.

Cross Belt Analyzers based on Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) technology are installed directly on the conveyor belt to measure the entire material stream continuously and in real time to troubleshoot issues in pre-blending stockpile control and quarry management, raw mix proportioning control, and material sorting. Read PGNAA Improves Process and Quality Control in Cement Production to learn what makes PGNAA particularly suited for cement analysis.

Accurate cement production also depends on belt scale systems to monitor output and inventory or regulate product loadout, as well as tramp metal detectors to protect equipment and keep the operation running smoothly. The Cement Manufacturing Process flow chart sums up where in the process each type of technology is making a difference.”




Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.