Contentious Coal Mine

From Mongabay.com, news of a contentious coal mine………
Contentious Coal Mine
Legal challenge to South Africa mine expansion looks to set new landmark
by Victoria Schneider on 12 November 2021
Source – https://news.mongabay.com/2021/11/legal-challenge-to-south-africa-mine-expansion-looks-to-set-new-landmark/
“In 2016, South Africa’s minister of minerals and energy granted one of the country’s largest anthracite coal mines the right to expand and resettle 143 families.
The decision was challenged by a local organization that filed an application against the minister, the Department of Minerals and Energy, the mining company, and others.
If the case is won, it would be a landmark for communities affected by mining activities across the country, as the government, traditional authorities and unions have shown support for the mine.
Five years ago, one of South Africa’s largest coal mines was given permission to grow even larger. In 2016, the Tendele mine was granted mining rights to an additional 212 square kilometers (82 square miles) of the northeastern province of KwaZulu-Natal. Residents challenged the decision in court in 2018, and the case is finally being heard this week. And when it comes, the decision could be a landmark for communities affected by mining across the country.
At the core of the dispute is a 2016 decision by the minister of minerals and energy to grant Tendele, a subsidiary of South African mining company Petmin, the right to extend its open-pit coal mine at Somkhele, near Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Nature Reserve. The ministry approved extending mining rights over an additional 212 km2, which would have required relocating 143 families.
Tendele has been operating the mine since 2007. It has prompted complaints by local communities about dust pollution affecting people’s health, houses cracking due to blasting, polluted groundwater, and loss of livestock.
The court challenge was initially filed in 2018 by the Mfolozi Community Environmental Justice Organization (MCEJO), a local group formed in opposition to mining in the area. MCEJO has since been joined by four co-applicants representing mining-affected communities and environmental defenders in South Africa. They argue that the environmental impact assessment (EIA) for extending the mine was flawed and consultation with the community was inadequate.
“There was no meaningful stakeholder input” and “no prior, free and informed consent obtained from the occupiers of the land,” court papers read.
The case is regarded as a potential landmark for communities affected by mining in South Africa. “This case is vital,” said attorney Kirsten Youens, whose nonprofit law clinic All Rise is representing MCEJO. “What happens in Somkhele is so reminiscent of apartheid days when people were told that they had no rights and had to go with it. This case will show that communities can stand up to big powerful governments and industries.”
Local communities complain about dust pollution affecting people’s health, houses cracking due to blasting, polluted groundwater, and loss of livestock caused by Tendele’s mining.
Long, violent struggle
The hearing has been delayed five times, most recently due to the sheer volume of paperwork submitted by the parties. The case finally opened on Nov. 10 and is scheduled to run for three days, with judgment expected in February 2022 at the earliest.
For Tendele, the matter has become increasingly urgent as the miner says the coal reserves in the current areas will soon be depleted. “Should the mine be unable to very soon open up an extended area, it will be forced to close,” CEO Jan du Preez told Mongabay. According to du Preez, if the mine closes down, 1,200 employees and 70 locally based entrepreneurs would lose their primary source of income. This could be as soon as June 2022.
The company is seeking to have the case referred back to the minister of minerals and energy, which would allow it to continue preparations to expand. But MCEJO attorney Youens insists the extended mining right be withdrawn and the company start again from the beginning.
The dispute around Somkhele has been accompanied by tensions and violence targeting opponents of the mine. It peaked with the murder of Fikile Ntshangase, one of the leading voices against the expansion, in October 2020.
MCEJO itself was divided in the course of the legal battle. The organization, now counting more than 3,000 members, originated in the nearby Fuleni community where residents opposed a planned coal mine in 2015, and soon expanded to Somkhele. The executive committee is based in Fuleni.
Weeks before Ntshangase’s murder, seven of nine members of its Somkhele subcommittee — all but Ntshangase and the chairperson — had signed an agreement with the mine to withdraw from the court case.
The seven have since been expelled from the organization, but in March this year, Tendele signed a “peace accord ” with this splinter group of MCEJO and other local groups in favor of the mine.
An attempt by Tendele to use the internal conflict to challenge Youens’s mandate as the legal representative of MCEJO was dismissed by the court in April.
Company’s shrinking claim
Even before the case is heard, the resistance has affected the narrative. Following accusations that the mine is dividing the community, Tendele eventually admitted that the process of obtaining the new mining right was flawed.
In March 2021, the miner acknowledged a “lack of evidence” proving that the Department of Environmental Affairs had been consulted by the minister of minerals and energy before his decision to grant the mining right, as required by the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (MPRDA).
Tendele also accepted that the EIA process did not comply with the MPRDA. It concluded that “neither the Regional Manager nor the Minister could have reasonably satisfied themselves that the proposed mining will not result in unacceptable pollution, ecological degradation or damage to the environment.”
The company further admitted “imperfections” in the public participation process, specifying that “Tendele did not obtain consent from MCEJO’s members and other lawful occupiers of the proposed mining sites as required under the Interim Protection of Informal Land Rights Act 31 of 1996.”
Tendele has since reduced the prospective mining area by 92%, now seeking only 17 km2 (6.6 mi2), and is claiming to “retain only those areas which it requires in order to keep the mine operating in the short to medium term.”
The revised extension has left some households uncertain if the mine’s claims still include their homes. “They keep changing the area that is going to be affected,” said Skhombuse Buthelezi, a member of MCEJO who lives in the Ophondweni community that falls into the mining area under dispute.
He said his family was offered compensation of 500,000 rand (nearly $33,000) to relocate, but “no one from the mine has ever engaged with us.” All communication has been done through documents.
Possible settlement emerging
While most affected families have signed agreements with the mine, 10 families have instead entered a mediation process to negotiate a compensation scheme outside the courts.
Richard Spoor Attorneys is representing these households in the mediation. Lawyer Johan Lorenzen said they seek “sustainable compensation based on international best practice grounded in livelihood restoration” rather than Tendele’s offer to pay each based on how much their houses are worth.
Du Preez said that mediation is progressing well. He said he’s also confident that his company has the government’s support: “We must be the only mining company in South Africa that has the Minister and the Premier and the Municipality and Traditional Council and NUM [National Union of Mineworkers] and AMCU [Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union] publicly supporting the mine.”
For its opponents, the case illustrates the struggle faced by communities in mining areas in South Africa and beyond.
“It pits the greed of corporate entities against the environmental and social concerns of the people and is indicative of struggles faced by mining-affected communities across the country,” said Christopher Rutledge, executive director of Mining Affected Communities United in Action (MACUA), an organization representing mining communities in South Africa that joined MCEJO as an applicant earlier this year.
“So many mines operate above the law,” Youens said. “They know they play such a big role in the economy, they just run over people who don’t know their rights.”
Rutledge was also critical of the role played by the Department of Minerals and Energy. “The DMRE continues to collude with business interests to the detriment of local communities and the environment.”
The DMRE did not respond to questions about this case in time for publication.
Tensions around the mine persist today. Activists and residents opposed to the mine report continuing intimidation and threats, exacerbated by pressure on the remaining holdouts to accept compensation payments and sign relocation agreements.”
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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss

Protecting your ears in a noisy work environment is vital!
Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss
Source – https://ohsonline.com/articles/2021/10/11/noise-hazard.aspx?admgarea=news
“Study Finds More than One-Half of Workers Exposed to Noise do not Use Hearing Protection While on the Job
Non-use was highest among women, young workers and current smokers.
By Shereen HashemOct 11, 2021
A new NIOSH study estimates that more than one-half of noise-exposed workers did not use hearing protection “always” or “usually” when exposed to hazardous occupational noise. A Hearing protection device (HPD) non-use was only measured in workers who reported exposure to noise on the job. The study was published online October 1, 2021 in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Around 22 million people in the U.S. are exposed to hazardous noise at work each year. Researchers found female workers, young workers (aged 18-25) and current smokers had a significantly higher prevalence of HPD non-use.
“Our findings regarding HPD non-use by gender and age group are consistent with previous studies,” said Elizabeth Masterson, PhD, research epidemiologist and study co-author. “However, no prior relationship between smoking and HPD non-use has been reported. Our study was the first to find a significant association between current smoking and HPD non-use.”
The study looked at 39,508 adult current workers from 2007 and 2014 National Interview Surveys. These surveys asked participants about their HPD use and occupational noise exposure within the past year. Out of the workers surveyed, 2,057 reported exposure to occupational noise during the previous 12 months in 2007 and 3,380 in 2014. Overall, between 2007 and 2014, the prevalence of HPD non-use did not change significantly.
Among all workers exposed to noise in 2014, researchers found the majority (53 percent) did not wear hearing protection consistently. Industries with the highest HPD non-use among noise-exposed workers included Accommodation and Food Services (90 percent), Health Care and Social Assistance (83 percent) and Education Services (82 percent). Additionally, some of the industries where noise is a well-recognized hazard, were found to have high prevalence of HPD non-use, including Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (74 percent) and Construction (52 percent).
“The prevalence of HPD non-use remains high. Increasing worker awareness and providing training about the importance of proper and consistent use of HPDs can protect workers from the effects of hazardous noise” said Dr. Masterson. “In addition, we need to overcome barriers to HPD use by ensuring that workers have HPDs that are comfortable and do not overprotect from noise so they can hear speech and other important workplace signals.”
For more information about noise and hearing loss prevention research visit the NIOSH website. Visit the Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance webpage for industry sector-specific statistics on hearing loss, noise exposure and more information.
About the Author
Shereen Hashem is the Associate Content Editor for Occupational Health & Safety magazine.”
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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Plant more forests

An interesting article on the importance of trees to our environment – and in the fight against fallout dust.
Plant more forests
Source – https://www.technology.org/2021/08/09/want-to-stop-the-droughts-plant-more-forests/
“Want to stop the droughts? Plant more forests
Posted August 9, 2021
Forests are extremely important for the environment. They are dense habitats for animals and plants, they clean groundwater, and provide us with oxygen. Now scientists from ETH Zurich have shown for the first time that forests lead to a rise in precipitation. In other words, forests help fight droughts.
Due to climate change, we are bound to experience more and more devastating droughts. And that is extremely bad news because our farms depend on rain and wildlife is struggling in droughts as well. Scientists knew for a long time that forests affect regional climates. They help regulate local temperatures and relative humidity. However, up until now scientists didn’t know how exactly forests affect precipitation locally and regionally.
Swiss scientists now analysed precipitation data from over 5,800 measuring stations belonging to different measuring networks in five European regions – Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Finland. And they made some interesting findings – precipitation in forested lands is considerably higher than in agricultural fields. Surprisingly, scientists found that this effect was more pronounced in winter. But how do forests make it rain?
Scientists hypothesize that increase in precipitation is due to the roughness of the surface of the forest. Forests hold up air masses longer and induce more turbulence, which favours precipitation. They are also warmer in winter than their surroundings and different local temperatures increase precipitation as well. This does mean that planting new forests could help us combat droughts, but what kind of effects could we expect?
Researchers estimate that reforestation of 14.4 % of the total area included in the study would increase average precipitation by as much as 7.6 %, which is a significant amount of rain. On the other hand, this area corresponds to an area slightly larger than France. Allocating so much land to a new forest would not be easy, but it would also help us reduce CO2 concentrations. However, scientists are not too optimistic.
Ronny Meier, first author of the study, said: “A forest does not grow overnight; it takes 20-?30 years. The increased evaporation caused by adding forests in one location might draw water away from streams and rivers needed for agricultural irrigation elsewhere.” This means that reforestations efforts should be well-planned and strategic. However, the efforts would be worth it, because it is very likely that forests would help us avoid extreme weather events as well.
Earth needs forests, but humans prefer agricultural fields. The problem is that without the forests our fields are not going to flourish, bees will die and weather will become more and more extreme. We need to be smart about it and plant more forests.
Source: ETH Zurich”
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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Sources of Dust

  1. SOURCES OF DUST

D.1.SITE DUST

The sources of dust here are predominantly from roads and open areas on the site. The dust is generated from the movements of trucks, forklifts, earthmoving machinery and light vehicles.  Typically, the methodologies for limiting fallout dust levels include watering, using dust binding agents, enforcing speed limits and engineering controls.  Training of workers are also able to effectively control dust levels, but this must include the training of all subcontractors that are doing the work on the site.

D.2.STOCK PILES

These are temporary and typically contain a fines component which can become airborne in the presence of wind.  Typically, the methodologies for attenuation include watering, using dust binding agents and covering the stock piles with hessian.

D.3. BUILDING DUST

This is dust generated during the construction of residential homes, apartments and other concrete structures.  Typically, the methodologies for mitigation include training of contractors to limit dust during the various small construction activities.  Wetting down of exposed dust sources and covering of exposed dust sources.  Grinding and cutting generates excessive dust levels and localised engineering controls should be implemented to prevent this dust from being liberated into the environment.

Putting sand down on concrete or brick road surfaces for protection and sealing purposes should be limited and dust must be prevented from these road surfaces.

The use of shade cloth barriers to break up the wind speed and to allow dust to settle should be implemented downwind as per the prevailing wind during the months of 1 September to 30 April.  These months have a prevailing wind direction from the south east.  The shade cloth should be 2.2meters high and supported by sturdy wooden poles.  The cloth should be a low-density shade cloth that allows the wind to pass through the cloth, rather than to block the flow of the wind.   The method of attaching the cloth to the fence should limit the movement of the cloth so that the cloth lasts longer and should not have any sharp edges that can damage the cloth.  Repairs to shade cloth should be included in the planned maintenance.

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The above was taken from a generic report brought out by DustWatch CC

Sources of dust

Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Happy New Year 2022

Happy New Year!  May it be a blessed and prosperous year for you all.

Mining Related Deaths

This is always an issue that we want to see improved.  The work environment should be kept as safe as possible!
Mining Related Deaths
Source – https://www.news24.com/fin24/companies/sa-was-aiming-to-end-mine-fatalities-instead-more-miners-are-dying-20210709
“SA was aiming to end mine fatalities – instead, more miners are dying accreditation
Sibongile Khumalo
SA’s mining industry and unions are concerned about an increase in mining-related deaths.
The year 2019 was the safest year on record with 51 deaths.
SA’s deep gold mines, followed by platinum, lead the sector in terms of high fatalities.
Although South Africa’s mining industry has been aiming to reduce mine fatalities to zero, the latest figures instead show an increase.
On Thursday, the Minerals Council of South Africa (MCSA) said a total of 32 mineworkers had died to date this year in the country’s mines – an increase from the rate seen a year ago.
In 2020, as the industry navigated the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic – which hobbled full capacity operations in the initial months of the hard lockdown – some 24 mineworkers were killed in accidents.
While this was progress for South Africa, the International Council on Mining and Metals found, in its 2020 report, that SA had accounted for half its members’ fatalities.
The number of SA mining fatalities in 2018 had stood at 81.
South Africa, which has some of the world’s deepest mines, once had the worst health and safety record in the world. But since 1993, it has gradually been working to turn this around. The year 2019 as the safest on record with 51 deaths.
The country’s deep gold mines account for this year’s highest number of deaths in the period to 5 July, followed by platinum operations.
The MCSA, as well as other stakeholders such as labour unions and the Department of Mineral Resources and Energy, on Thursday expressed concern at the rise in mine fatalities at a time when the industry was also dealing with a pandemic that had so far killed 480 mineworkers.
What’s causing the deaths?
This year, there has been an increase in “fall of ground” accidents, particularly in the gold sector, with general accidents in mines also being on the upward trend.
The president of the MCSA, Nolitha Fakude, said while Covid-19 – which has devastated the industry for nearly 18 months – was still a challenge, it was crucial not to overlook a deterioration in mining’s safety performance.
“Worse still, thus far in 2021, we are seeing a further deterioration in the fatality trend,” said Fakude, as the council launched the National Day of Health and Safety in Mining.
Themba Mkhwanazi, who is the chairperson the Minerals Council’s Zero Harm Forum, said the situation called for collaborative efforts by the industry in order to arrest the trend.
“The CEOs must drive health and safety improvements from the top by sharing successes and challenges in dealing with occupational incidents,” said Mkhwanazi, who is also the chief executive of Kumba Iron Ore.
In addition to their depth, South Africa also has some of the oldest mines in the world. The sector has over the past year seen a mixed bag of reports in terms of mine-related deaths – as well as other health concerns.
The Chief Inspector of Mines, David Msiza, said while there had been a reduction in occupational diseases, the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss and occupational lung disease was still a concern.
Illegal miners’ battle to survive
While the industry is grappling with safety incidents in regular mining activities, government is also facing the scourge of illegal mining, which often results in deaths, as groups known as “zama-zamas” battle for territory or die in disused shafts.
In June, 20 bodies of people believed to be illegal miners surfaced on a site of a disused mine on Orkney, in the Free State.
Illegal mining deaths are not accounted for in the official incidents.
In addition to safety concerns over unregulated mining activities, Msiza said some illegal gangs were becoming violent.
He said illegal miners who were initially concentrated in the Free State were increasingly becoming active in Mpumalanga and the East Rand.
The Department of Mineral Resources and Energy has been driving the sealing of disused shafts in various parts of the country, but the reopening of holes by syndicates has seen officials playing cat and mouse with zama-zamas.
“If we don’t deal with the market, then we will struggle. Our other approach is to promote illegal mining through the issuing of licences to groups that want to operate with the legitimate legal framework, ” he said.
This article has been updated to reflect that the ICMM said 50% of fatalities were among its members. It does not include non-members in its analysis.”
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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Merry Christmas 2021

We wish all our customers and clients a blessed Christmas season for 2021.

Microscan Assessments of Find Particulate Matter Samples

GENERIC INFORMATION PERTAINING TO MICROSCAN ASSESSMENTS OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES

  • ILLUSTRATION OF METHODOLOGY PROCEDURES, DESIGNED TO ENSURE CONSISTENCY AND ACCURACY.

Microscan Assessments of Find Particulate Matter Samples

Image 1: The microscope currently being used.  UB100i Biological Binocular – 4 eye magnifications. UOP. SKU: SW-70051-BS-UB100i.  See specifications in Appendix A.

  • Introduction
    MicroScans are merely a description of accepted geological and other procedures for the recognition of rock fine material and other airborne material, distributed through-out a captured sample.
    While there are many more accurate quantitative analytical procedures, almost all are extremely expensive and all have limitations as they are designed for one purpose without considering other tests that may need to be done on the sample.
    It is important to interpret the results from such quantitative tests with the assistance of the background knowledge of how the sample was taken and site specific information.
    Often laboratory reports are only of academic value and do not bring new information to the table to assist in interpreting the results. The basics of any analysis is that it must provide additional information that is useful for the interpretation of the data being discussed.
    Spectrographic analysis is fine for the various mineral elements or individually for various compounds and element combinations, but all of the organic matter has to be either ashed or acid digested, and thus unless you have done a huge bulk sample capture, you will use up all of the sample to arrive at the elemental content.
    You will then need more material to be able to look at the organic chemistry type contents and yet a third sample to be able to look at the biological content and so on.
    Again, while not the perfect solution, the MicroScan is an intelligent scrutiny of samples that does not destroy or contaminate the sample.
  • Accuracy and Application

Things of concern in establishing the accuracy of any analytical method, as with field and laboratory geology, the initial recognition of a sample will rely on the colour of the sample, the hardness, form of the material in its normal state, and its propensity to break along fracture planes.  The fact that there is a list of geological materials falling into various hardness categories, which are used to establish how hard the material is, with harder material always damaging material of a softer hardness.
Other features of geology of use are the lustre presented on broken surfaces, and the crystalline structure of most minerals.
No matter how small the particulate may be, this will, in most cases, still display its crystalline form.  The hardness of each will then predict how fine dust material will wear, especially when driven over on roadways, quarries, and on dumps.  As dirt can be exceedingly small, this is the scale we need to work at and thus it is imperative that samples can be viewed at anything from scores, hundreds or even thousands of magnifications.  The advent of the digital imaging and various light sources, permits us not only to make observations but to photograph the noted features and specimens present.
The existence of a microscopic world out there also offers an opportunity to find microscopic life forms, or sub-micronic material and the larger more common pollen spores, algae, bacteria, and moulds which can influence health.  These potential health impacts are a concern and do impact on the health of people exposed to them.
Silicosis is caused by fine silica dust, and anthracosis is caused by fine coal dust.  Other forms of respirable disease are caused by other fine dusts, and the MicroScans enable the identification of fibres as well as fine organic material that can have a health impact.
It is a great big “tiny world” out there and there is no reason to only consider the mass of fine particulate matter, PM2.5 or PM10 or even PM30, but why not look for fibres which are present in airborne dusts, spores, moulds and other material which all have largely been ignored with regarding to their impacts on health.
The fact that collection methods only consider a material that remains after ashing or digestion also misses the golden opportunity of seeing what inaccuracies occur in many of the well-established and accepted methodologies.
The MicroScan technician in this case has to have a skill set and the skill base we work from is the knowledge of geology, occupational hygiene, organic chemistry and finally biology.  There are also some elements of forensics.

  • Sample Preparation

Ideally samples should be in a standard, 47mm petri slides with a tight fitted lid.  This allows the sample to be easily sealed when not being MicroScanned.
FFP1 or FFP2 respirators can be used to prevent the inhalation of fine respirable particulates.
Gloves should not be worn, as the combination of fabrics could cause static and the possible loss of fine material.
Forceps must be used to handle any samples.

  • Observations, Digitised Images and Preparation of Report photographs

The samples are scanned, and a representative image selected.  All size fractions are determined using a graticule.  The graticule size starts at 10 Micron and allows for the d50 diameter of a samples to be estimated.
The image is selected for photography if required.  Should there be any features or unusual material in the sample or a biological specimen, then this can be photographed, either in addition to or instead of the predominant particulate on the filter paper.
The photograph can be taken at four magnifications depending on the requirements.
1:400

1:4000
1:1000
1:10000

The Microscope has four magnification (mag) settings, 4x, 10x, 40x, and 100x as a field lens.  The eye piece increases the magnification by 10x, and the camera increases it by 100 times.  The camera is fitted to the top of the microscope and the eye piece magnification is not included.

The total length of the gratical in the image below is 1mm from end to end.  Each small line indicates a gap of 10 micron, each medium line is a gap of 50 micron and each long line is a gap of 100 micron.

Image 2:  The above image photographed at a magnification of 4x field lens and 100x optical camera image, totalling 400 magnifications.

Image 3  The above image photographed at a magnification of 10x field lens and 100x optical camera image, totalling 1000 magnifications.

Image 4:  The above image photographed at a mag of 40x field lens and 100x optical camera image, totalling 4000 magnifications.

Image 5:  The above image photographed at a mag of 100x field lens and 100x optical camera image, totalling 10000 mags.
In practise this magnification cannot be achieved as the LED light source is not good enough to illuminate through the clear glass graticule, as can be noted by the image.

Note that the scaling is only applicable if the original image from the microscope is viewed at 100% size, and if the image has not been digitally resized.  The images above have been digitally resized.

There are some unknowns when doing MicroScans as described above and this should be considered when interpreting the results.

MicroScan assessments are a collection of recognised Geological and structural techniques utilised at microscopic level to determine the gross contents and salient features of any sample.  Crystallography also plays a significant part in the structural determination of materials making up the various constituents of the sample.

As the digitised images will also play a part in the recognition of certain constituents these can be further manipulated permitting viewing using polarised light and other means of illumination.

Our initial problem with some samples (unless taken by DustWatch in the field) is a common one shared by most laboratories running any form of assessment or analysis and that is that samples are supplied “blind” without any background information.  This means that we need to start making assumptions about unknown sampling procedures, exposure or capture times, methods or even any unusual circumstances surrounding the sampling conditions.

It is important to not put two samples together in one container as there will be cross contamination during transport and handling.

 

Gerry F. Kuhn (FMVS, MSAIOH, Grad SE) Chris Loans

(BSc Chemical Engineer, Pr Eng, MSc Public Health)

Doc Number:  0421291124  Date:  29-Apr-21

Appendix A:

___________________Extract from http://www.lakeland-microscopes.co.uk/ub100i.html
(Accessed August 2018)_____

Binocular Microscopes > UB-100i

UB-100i Advanced Binocular Laboratory Microscope 
Full sized laboratory standard instrument of modern ergonomic design, robust reliable construction and excellent optical performance.
Equipped with infinity-corrected achromatic optical system. Chromatic aberrations and field curvature of field are both ideally corrected over the field of view. Infinity objectives, with higher numerical apertures, produce crisp and clear images..
Ideal for use in colleges, universities and professional laboratories over a wide range of biological, medical, veterinary, bacteriological and agricultural applications. Highly recommended.

Technical Specification: 
* Magnification range x40, x100, x400 & x1000
* Paired x10 DIN standard high eyepoint, widefield Plan eyepieces. Field 18mm, eyepoint 21mm
* Infinity achromatic objectives DIN standard Parfocal, parcentred x4(0.13),x10(0.30),40R(0.70),x100R(1.25) oil immersion (R=retractable)
* Bright field ABBE condenser (N.A. 1.25) with colour-coded iris diaphragm scale and filter carrier on fully focusing Substage
* Build in 230v, 6v 20w halogen illumination with continuously variable rotary brightness control
* Co-axial coarse and fine focusing with indexed scale and adjustable focus tension
* Smooth action x-y mechanical stage 142x135mm with co-axial drop controls and an adjustable spring arm to accommodate slides of different sizes
* Smooth action x-y mechanical stage 142x135mm with co-axial drop controls and an adjustable spring arm to accommodate slides of different sizes
* Seidentopf binocular head, inclined 30 degrees Rotatable 360 degrees with full inter-pupillary adjustment (52-75mm). Magnification factor x1
* Reversed position quadruple objective turret on sealed ball bearing race
* Complete with dust cover
* Supplied in polystyrene pack
* Dimensions 270x190x340mm
* Weight 6.5kg

 

______End of Extract from http://www.lakeland-microscopes.co.uk/ub100i.html (Accessed August 2018) _

Appendix B

Additional reading material (Links accessible in August 2018 but may have changed since then)

Appendix C

Particle Size Theory

The South African national definition of PM10 particulate size is given as particulate matter of a size less than 10 micron.

The definition of any particle size has to include the density and the shape of the particle.  To understand PM10 particulate (or any particle size definition) additional definitions need to be understood and taken into account.

  1. PM10 – Sampling of atmospheric dust where the aerodynamic d50 diameter is 10μm.
  2. Aerodynamic diameter is the diameter of a spherical particle that has a density of 1g/cm3 and which has the same terminal settling velocity as the particle of interest.
  3. d50 – In a sample of dust the d50 diameter is the diameter above which fifty percent of the particles are larger, and below which fifty percent of the particles are smaller.
  4. d90 – In a sample of dust the d90 diameter is the diameter below which 90% of the particles are smaller.
  5. Terminal settling velocity is the fastest velocity that a particle can fall by gravity taking into account the shape and drag of the particle.

WRAC – Wide Range Aerosol Classification

TSP – Total Suspended Particulate

“The percentage of total aerosol mass less than 10 micron varied from about 50 to 90%, depending on the sampling location and sampling conditions.”  (R. M. Burton & Dale A. Lundgren (1987) Wide Range Aerosol Classifier: A Size Selective Sampler for Large

Particles, Aerosol Science and Technology, 6:3, 289-301, DOI: 10.1080/02786828708959140

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02786828708959140)

“PM10: The mass concentration of particles smaller than 10 μm. In practice, PM10 samplers do not provide perfectly sharp cuts at 10 μm. Instead, size-dependent collection efficiencies typically decrease from 100 percent at ~ 1.5 μm to 0 percent at ~15 μm, and are equal to 50 percent at 10 μm.” Referenced from http://www.aerosols.eas.gatech.edu/EAS%20Graduate%20Lab/Class%20Notes%20Aerosols%20and%20Size%20Distrn.pdf

From the above it is important to note that larger particles can be collected if they have a low density as is the case with organics.

Gold Bearing Areas

Let’s learn about how do identify gold bearing areas from Sciencing.com ( https://sciencing.com/identify-gold-bearing-area-8758088.html )

Gold Bearing Areas

“How to Identify a Gold Bearing Area

Updated April 25, 2017
By Chiara Sakuwa

Gold prospecting and identifying gold-bearing areas have become increasingly more feasible, due to research developments on the geological process of gold formation. (See References 1.) Gold bearing areas, mostly throughout the western United States, have drawn and sprouted entire communities based on prospecting. (See Reference 1.) Various hypotheses exist on how gold is formed as it surfaces in numerous types of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Gold is mainly found in two types of deposits: lode (hard rock veins) and placer (surface). Locating the richest gold bearing areas primarily involves research, planning, dedication and funds. In other words, those who study geological surveys, land formations, rock structures and gold prospecting history prior to prospecting may have a better chance of finding desired amounts of gold. (See References 1 and 3.)

Research the geological properties of a particular gold-bearing area of interest. These properties include the rock formations, structure, fault lines and the primary mineral content of the area. Also, study the mineralization process of gold in general to determine which segment of a particular area may yield gold. (See Reference 1.)

Assess whether the area of interest is a lode deposit or placer deposit to determine proper equipment and prospecting methods. A lode deposit, consisting of hard rock usually found in a mine, mine dump or quartz vein will require a pick axe, hammer and chisel. Prospecting in a placer deposit, usually a stream, gravel lot or beach, requires a pan or dredging equipment. (See Reference 3.)

Plan your prospecting excursion according to your research. Gather the appropriate equipment. Map out the area and pinpoint the exact location you plan on prospecting for gold. Also, check state and local government regulations on gold prospecting respective to that particular region. (See Reference 2.)

Things You’ll Need
Chisel
Dredging equipment
Geological survey map
Gold pan
Pick axe
Rock hammer

Tips
Due to the fact that gold is more weather-resistant than the rocks containing it, gold nuggets and fine particles can be washed down to concentrated placer deposits, or “pay streaks” by gradual erosion. (See Reference 1.)

Warnings
Prospecting for gold often requires a large amount of funds for travel, accommodations and off-roading vehicles, without real promise of a good find, in most cases. In other words, a prospector must hope for the best, but be financially and psychologically prepared for the worst. (See Reference 2.)

Some gold-bearing areas, including national parks, are closed to prospecting. Violations may accrue major fines and in more serious cases, possible jail time. (See Reference 2.)

If a gold-bearing area is on privately-owned land, be sure to obtain permission from the owner in writing prior to prospecting. (See Reference 2.)”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Generic Report

Below is an example of a generic report that DustWatch produces for it’s clients.

____________________________

CLIENT NAME

DUST FALL-OUT MONITORING PROGRAMME

DUSTWATCH REPORT 8

1 JUNE TO 28 JULY 2018

 

1     Introduction

This report covers a 57-day period.

The unit design and methodology are based on the ASTM D1739 standard.

Additional information is available in the DustWatch manual.  Please contact us to enquire about the latest version of the manual; chris@dustwatch.com

The area of the bucket used in the calculations is 0.022966m2.

There are three units installed and operating on site.  (GPS positions and a map will be added when they are available)

  • Unit 2 – Evac –
    Unit 3 – Carport –
  • Unit 4 – Francis –

 

Generic report - DustWatch cc

Figure 1:  Location of the units.

2      Comments on the result

There are three single bucket units installed and operational at the site, namely the:

  1. Unit No. 2 – Evac (SB2)
  2. Unit No. 3 – Carport (SB3)
  3. Unit No. 4 – Francis (SB4)

The fall-out dust standards from National Dust Control Regulations, 2013.

Restriction Areas Dustfall rate (D) (mg/m2/day) – averaged over 30 days. Permitted frequency of exceeding dust fall rate
Residential area D < 600 Two within a year, not sequential months.
Non-residential area D < 1200 Two within a year, not sequential months.

Table 1:  Acceptable Dust Fall Rates – National Dust Control Regulations, 2013.

  • The Evac unit yielded 299 mg/m2/day in this period. The result decreased and is compliant in this period.
  • The Carport unit yielded 290 mg/m2/day in this period. The result is not a concern.
  • The Francis unit yielded 290mg/m2/day in this period.

The results are below 1200_mg/m2/day and are not a concern.

Unit name Residential or Non-residential Area Applicable Compliance – Dustfall rate (D) (mg/m2/day) – averaged over 30 days. Non-compliant or compliant.  Two within a year, not sequential months.
Unit No. 2 (SB2)
Evac
(Non-residential) D < 1200 Compliant in this period.  Compliant for the year.  Exceedance in January.
Unit No. 3 (SB3)
Carport
(Non-residential) D < 1200 Compliant in this period.  Compliant for the year so far.
Unit No. 4 (SB4)
Francis
(Non-residential) D < 1200 Compliant in this period.  Compliant for the year so far.

Table 2:  Compliance Table 2018

Chris Loans

(BSc Chemical Engineer, pr eng)

Cape Town, Doc Number:  0718191208: Date:  19-Jul-18

 

Weather Information – Weather

 

2018 Temp. (°C) Dew Point (°C) Humidity (%) Visibility (km) Wind (km/h) Precip. (mm) Events
May high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg high sum
2 18 14 11 15 13 11 100 88 71 19 10 0 32 13 39 2.03 Fog , Rain
3 23 18 12 14 11 10 94 67 39 31 19 10 27 16 0.00
4 29 18 8 11 8 6 93 58 15 19 17 10 14 6 0.00
5 21 16 11 14 9 4 88 61 30 31 24 19 35 14 0.00
6 23 17 10 14 12 9 100 79 40 31 20 7 21 6 0.00
7 23 18 13 15 12 5 94 63 26 19 13 10 48 16 1.02 Rain
8 17 15 13 13 12 9 94 80 62 31 11 4 52 32 63 2.03 Rain
9 19 14 10 11 9 7 88 69 39 31 14 8 23 14 0.00
10 20 14 8 11 9 6 94 77 31 31 21 19 16 6 0.00
11 19 14 9 12 10 7 100 81 41 19 12 6 27 11 0.25 Rain
12 20 17 13 14 12 11 100 81 52 31 13 10 23 14 0.51 Rain
13 19 13 8 13 12 9 100 81 58 31 13 2 27 13 40 0.00 Fog
14 21 17 13 14 12 11 94 76 48 31 23 10 29 16 0.00
15 23 16 8 14 11 6 100 85 40 19 6 0 13 6 0.00 Fog
16 29 19 9 13 9 6 94 62 16 31 25 19 16 8 0.00
17 23 19 16 15 14 11 94 73 47 31 23 10 21 16 0.00
18 29 20 12 15 12 9 94 67 23 31 21 19 16 8 0.00
19 24 19 13 13 12 9 88 68 35 31 26 19 23 8 0.00
20 21 18 15 15 14 11 94 80 64 26 13 7 34 18 0.51 Rain
21 18 17 15 15 14 13 94 87 75 19 9 2 40 31 9.91 Rain
22 19 17 13 14 12 11 94 76 50 26 12 4 39 26 0.00 Rain
23 19 17 14 15 14 13 88 79 62 31 12 6 50 29 0.00 Rain
24 17 16 14 16 14 10 100 87 68 19 9 3 39 24 5.08 Rain
25 19 13 8 12 11 7 94 78 48 31 15 10 19 10 0.00
26 21 13 6 13 9 6 100 82 40 31 13 1 14 5 0.00 Fog
27 22 14 7 13 9 6 100 79 32 31 19 0 10 5 0.00 Fog
28 18 14 12 14 13 12 94 86 74 19 10 3 47 23 58 5.08 Rain
29 17 13 9 12 10 7 94 79 49 31 13 6 19 10 0.00 Rain
30 17 12 8 12 9 8 94 80 58 19 12 10 27 13 0.76
31 17 14 13 13 12 11 94 83 68 26 10 2 61 32 72 23.11 Rain
2018 Temp. (°C) Dew Point (°C) Humidity (%) Visibility (km) Wind (km/h) Precip. (mm) Events
Jun high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg high sum
1 17 13 10 13 9 6 94 69 39 31 11 3 60 34 80 0.00 Rain

 

 

CLIENT: gaositoe mmoledi Period Exceeds 40 Days SAMPLING PERIOD    –  1-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018
UNIT No. LOCATION FROM TO DUST MASS COLLECTED (mg) FILTER DUST mg/m2/day COMMENTS & NOTES
Result
SB2 Evac 1-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018 206 X501 299

Table 3: Fallout Dust Results

CLIENT: gaositoe mmoledi   SAMPLING PERIOD    –  28-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018
UNIT No. LOCATION FROM TO DUST MASS COLLECTED (mg) FILTER DUST mg/m2/day COMMENTS & NOTES
Result
SB3 Carport 28-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018 200 X502 290

Table 4: Fallout Dust Results

CLIENT: gaositoe mmoledi   SAMPLING PERIOD    –  28-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018
UNIT No. LOCATION FROM TO DUST MASS COLLECTED (mg) FILTER DUST mg/m2/day COMMENTS & NOTES
Result
SB4 Francis 28-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018 200 X500 290

 

Table 5: Fallout Dust Results

Calibration and SANAS Information

The calibration is shown to four decimal places of a gram and is accurate to 0.1 mg.

 

 

 Appendix – Ligno Sulphate Information – Chryso Eco Dust 200D

DustWatch can provide quotations for this product if required and also provide advice on optimized application for different area requirements.  Gravel Roads, Haul Roads, Unpaved open areas, Stockpiles and Berms.  On site advice is available for site specific requirements and optimization.

The application spreadsheet is available here if required.

 

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