Monthly Archives: December 2016

Christmas Pollution

Some interesting articles on the effects of Christmas products on your health and how to have a green Christmas!  Enjoy and MERRY CHRISTMAS!

Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Christmas Lights Are Ruining Your Health and the Environment

Last week, NASA released a report whose tone was misleadingly gleeful. Called “NOAA/NASA Satellite Sees Holiday Lights Brighten Cities,” it began, “Even from space, holidays shine bright.” The satellite has been monitoring patterns in nighttime lighting intensity all over the world since its mission began in January of 2012. The conclusions are unsurprising: beginning on Black Friday, nighttime lighting in and around U.S. cities brightens, and remains brighter through New Year’s Day.

That we can observe this from space proves we have too much of a good thing: Our love of holiday lights has become a flagrant waste of energy.

Miguel Román, one of study’s coauthors, told me that they’re waiting for the “happy goldilocks threshold” of three full years of data to make sure the trends they’re seeing are correct, but it doesn’t take a scientist to see this—just take a stroll tonight. Of the 70 cities and surrounding suburbs analyzed—all south of St. Louis, because snow in northern cities reflects so much light—Román and his team found that “in most suburbs and outskirts of major cities, light intensity increased by 30 to 50 percent.” Cities saw increases of 20 to 30 percent.

This isn’t just a waste of energy, further taxing the environment. It’s also contributing to a growing problem in the U.S.: light pollution.

Information found at New Republic

Real Vs Artificial Christmas Tree: What the science says

e debate about Christmas trees takes place year after year. We really shouldn’t use real trees and I’m glad that more and more people have stopped using natural trees for Christmas, but are artificial alternatives really better? Here, we’ll be discussing the main pros and cons of using artificial trees versus real trees, so that you can make the best decision and see what the science says.

Artificial Christmas Trees are artificial trees manufactured specifically for the purpose of being used as a Christmas tree. Here, I’ll be focusing only on the most common ones (the ones made from PVC), but you should know that there are also other, more creative alternatives. Most people would be surprised to find out that in many ways, artificial trees actually do more harm to the environment than cutting natural trees; in other words, the idea of artificial trees being eco-friendly is, as a researcher at Kansas State University put it – “an urban myth”.

A peer reviewed study released in 2011 found that the impacts of natural and artificial trees are almost similar, with the artificial ones being slightly worse. The key here is PVC. PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a petroleum-derived plastic. The main raw material for fake Christmas trees is both non-renewable and polluting, and you can’t recycle it. Furthermore, PVC production results in the unhealthy emission of a number of carcinogens, such as dioxin, ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride. Also, in order to actually create the needles, lead is often times used – and lead can have a number of significant negative health effects, including kidney, neurological, and reproductive system damage. Touching the tree, especially with your face can be quite hazardous. Also vacuuming around the tree can spread tiny lead particles in the air, which creating an inhalation danger.

It also requires a lot of energy to create and transport the fake trees. You need to reuse the tree for 20 years before it actually the total energy used starts to be less for artificial trees. There is also the problem of transportation, though recent studies have shown that that’s not such a big problem.

“The reality is that the long distance transport from China is pretty efficient,” says Laura Morrison, a Senior Consultant at PE International.

“Real” Christmas Trees are almost always evergreen conifers, such as spruce, pine, or fir. The custom of the Christmas trees developed in early modern Germany with predecessors that can be traced to the 16th and possibly 15th century. The history of this tradition has actually nothing to do with Christianity, though many Christians embraced it. Each year, 33 to 36 million Christmas trees are produced in America, and 50 to 60 million are produced in Europe. Naturally, cutting this many trees is a big problem, both ethically and environmentally, but is it worse than polluting ?

Natural tree growers contend that artificial trees are more environmentally harmful than their natural counterparts, but trade groups such as the American Christmas Tree Association claim the exact opposite, so you can’t really rely on their claims considering their obvious bias. What does the science say?

Live trees are typically grown as a crop and replanted in rotation after cutting, often providing suitable habitat for wildlife. However, poor management can lead to poor habitat and soil degradation, but generally, Christmas tree plantations are at least decent habitats. Another main drawback is that you only use them for a short while, and then you throw them away. Sadly, even though they are biodegradable and highly recyclable, Christmas trees are sometimes simply thrown away. But more and more, they are starting to be recycled and used as mulch or used to prevent erosion. Real trees are also carbon-neutral, though emissions can occur from farming activities and transportation. They are also more expensive then artificial trees, since you need a new one every year.

It’s not possible to say that real or artificial Christmas trees are better. If you really want to have a green Christmas, if you want to lower your negative environmental impact, don’t buy any tree. Decorate your house, maybe get some fallen branches, whatever… just don’t get a tree. If you do want to keep the tradition and get a tree, then this is the main takeaway:

Both natural and fake trees have an environmental impact. Most people don’t know, but artificial trees have a slightly larger negative impact, requiring more energy, polluting and even posing potential health hazards. Cutting down natural trees, even if they are recycled afterwards and have a smaller carbon footprint, is unethical, and you would get a much bigger environmental bonus if you just let them grow. You’ll get a better habitat, more carbon sequestration, better landscapes and so on. This is what science says… the decision is yours. Choose responsibly!

Article found at ZME Science

How To Have A Green Christmas – Earth

Christmas doesn’t have to be a burden on the environment. With a little effort and imagination, we can reduce the environmental impact of the holiday season. Here are some ideas to help celebrate the season while caring for the earth.

Buy Less
Some holiday gifts fill a practical need and need to be bought new. But many gifts are really gestures of thoughtfulness. You can give more while spending less.

• Not all gifts have to be store-bought.
You can give more while spending less by giving gifts that are personal and unique. While young children may favor the bright, shiny store-bought item, most adults appreciate anything that shows thoughtfulness. Here’s a page with some great ideas for meaningful holiday gifts that aren’t found on store shelves: Tips for sustainable giving
• Simplify the ‘gift-go-round’.
Feeling overwhelmed by a gift list that’s just too long? Here’s an idea to help shorten your list and simplify the family gift-giving ritual. We tried this in our own family last year and it was appreciated by all.

Before the holiday season begins (Thanksgiving is a good time because the extended family is often together), put the names of all adult family members on separate slips of paper and put the slips in a hat. Take turns picking one name per adult – the name you pick is your gift recipient. Keep your chosen pick a secret, to help maintain an element of surprise.

Your gift list for the adults in your family has just been shortened to one! You can now focus on a special gift for the person whose name you picked, without the difficulty and expense of finding just the right gift for everyone.
If the family’s not together on Thanksgiving, ask Grandma or someone else in the family to pick the names from the hat for everyone, by proxy. It works just as well. An agreed on spending limit will also help everyone from feeling they have to go overboard with a fabulous gift for the person whose name they chose.

Buy Smart – think ‘green’
• look for locally made gifts
Many gifts in today’s marketplace come from halfway around the world, and the impact of transportation contributes significantly to greenhouse emissions and global warming. Local craft fairs and artisan shops are a good source for gifts that come without the added costs of transportation. And gifts made locally often have a story which goes with the gift, since the artisan and the origin of the gift are known.
• choose gifts made from recycled sources
Many individuals and small businesses have developed great products using recycled materials. Supporting these businesses helps reduce the waste stream while promoting the concept of making best use of available materials. Here are some examples for you to consider: Gifts from recycled materials
• give ‘battery-free’ gifts
According to the EPA, about 40% of all battery sales occur during the holiday season. Discarded batteries are an environmental hazard. Even rechargeable batteries find their way into the waste stream eventually. Here are a few examples of gifts that have less of an impact on the environment: Naturally-powered toys
• avoid children’s toys that promote violence
There is too much violence in the world, and the new wave of video games for children is disturbing. Remember the theme of Christmas is “Peace on Earth”. There are many toys and games that are fun, and nurture childrens’ creativity and sense of active play. Here are some examples: Educational toys and games
• ‘re-gifting’ is OK
There’s much discussion these days about the etiquette behind the trend to ‘re-gift’, that is, to pass on a gift you received but do not need. What’s to discuss? Re-gifting makes perfect sense. If you receive something you really don’t need, look for ways you can reuse this gift by passing it on to someone who can use it. Of course, re-gifting needs to be done with care so as not to offend the original giver, but keeping a gift you don’t need is wasteful.

Connect with Nature
Christmas is a time for giving, and a time for family. What a great opportunity to start a family tradition of giving back to the earth and instilling the values of sustainable living to your children, friends and community. Start an annual, earth-friendly Christmas family tradition! It will also get you outdoors for a few hours to build an appetite for the big dinner.

Annual Christmas Day Bird Count
Take your binoculars, a field guide to local birds, a small pad or journal for each participant and walk a course through your neighborhood, local park or countryside. Try to identify and count every bird you see, and make a note of it in your journal. At the end of the hike, list the species seen and number of birds per species. There’s always a surprising discovery, and the activity highlights the presence and value of our feathered friends.

Compare the results from former years and you’ll become experts on your local bird population and migration habits. This is a great family activity because even the youngest eyes are just as good at spotting the birds and contributing to the event.

Lower the impact of holiday lighting

In the past, the house with the most decorative holiday lights used to be considered the ‘best’. Times have changed. The cost of electricity goes way beyond the utility bill. Electricity drains natural resources.

• Reduce the size of outdoor lighting displays
A smaller presentation of lights can still be attractive, and more appropriate in the ‘season of giving’. Saving electricity is also a way of giving, since conserving resources benefits everyone.
• Use LED lights for house and Christmas tree lighting
LED (Light Emitting Diode) holiday lights use up to 95% less energy than larger, traditional holiday bulbs and last up to 100,000 hours when used indoors. LED holiday lights use .04 watts per bulb, 10 times less than mini bulbs and 100 times less than traditional holiday bulbs. Over a 30-day period, lighting 500 traditional holiday lights will cost you about $18.00 while the same number of LED lights costs only $0.19. As an added bonus, if one of the LED lights burns out the rest of the strand will stay lit.
• Outdoor Mini-lights will also save energy
A 100-light string uses only 40 watts. If you’re buying a new set of lights, compare based on equal ‘lighted lengths’. Some higher priced brands have 100 mini-lights for only 8 1/2 feet of length, while some 100 mini-light strings cover up to 40 feet in length. For the most efficient outdoor holiday lighting, consider the new solar LED strings now available.
• Turn tree lights and outdoor house decorative lighting at bedtime
It’s simply a waste of energy to leave the holiday lights on at night after everyone’s gone to sleep.

Follow the link above to read some more green Christmas ideas!

PM2.5 dust

Apportionment study to find source of pollution: MPPCB

The study will cover pollution from vehicles, construction work, industrial, housing and other activities. The cities to be studied are Bhopal, Indore, Ujjain, Dewas and Sagar. MPPCB officials said these five cities have been identified for carrying out the Sources Apportionment Study due to high pollution levels present there. The study will help identify reasons behind air pollution and arrive at a conclusion as to which source is causing how much pollution. Based on the findings, the authorities will try to cut down pollution levels.

However, the process will take time because experts point that at least three years are required for carrying out the study in one city. Besides, the cost of study is around Rs 1.5 crore per city.

Pollution is measured by taking into account level of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (Nox), RSPM10 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the air. Cause of SO2 is vehicles. Nox is due to human activity, including vehicles and sewage among others. RSPM 10 is on account of dust, construction, including building of roads, while PM2.5 is as a result of dust, human activity and climatic conditions. Officials said that of the four, PM2.5 is most harmful for health since it goes inside human body and causes severe lung diseases.

PCB officials said respirable dust sampler instrument is used for measuring air pollution. Filter paper and cyclone are used for calculating PM10 (respirable particulate matter) and PM2.5, with the help of which dust particles are measured in the air, while absorbent solution helps measure if sulphur dioxide is present.

MPPCB chief chemist Shyamanuj Tiwari said the study, which is primarily based on measurements and tracking down the sources, will help in identifying the sources and the extent of their contribution. “In MP, it is being initiated by efforts of our member secretary AA Mishra. A workshop has been scheduled in the state capital on Thursday in which field experts will present case studies and their findings on ambient air quality in different cities,” he said.

Officials said air pollution problem becomes complex due to multiplicity and complexity of the sources, which include industries, automobiles, domestic fuel burning, dust on road and construction.

A cost-effective approach for improving air quality in polluted areas involves identification of emission sources, assessment of extent of contribution of these sources on ambient environment, prioritising the sources that need to be tackled, evaluating various options for controlling the sources and formulation and implementation of action plans.

In MP, air quality is monitored at 37 places, including Ujjain, Bhopal, Indore, Dhar, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Sagar, Satna, Singrauli, Shahdol and Katni. Of these, Bhopal has the maximum six air quality monitoring stations.

 Ambient air quality of Bhopal, Indore, Ujjain, Dewas and Sagar is moderate or close to moderate, which is just above poor category in ambient air quality index.

Read more at Times Of India

This weird machine working in China can also be very useful for Lahore. Do you know what it is?

While choking smog has reached over 25 times safe levels in the Chinese capital, two fog cannons have been launched in Beijing with the aim of reducing levels of harmful PM2.5 particles and dust.

The mobile blowers, also known as dust suppression systems or dust fighters, are designed to dampen the air and control particulate matter, and are normally found at coal depots and other industrial sites where dust is a problem, reports Beijing Morning Post.

The fog cannons consist of a high power turbine ventilator, which can spray a light rain to a distance of 120 meters, and 60 metres into the air. The operator can also rotate the “cannon” by 270 degrees via remote control.

The dust fighter machines used to battle smog in Beijing can make tiny water mist particles as small as dust.

The two machines will mainly be seen in key areas in the city – the Foreign Embassy area, the Olympic park, Asian Sports Village and Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping area.

According to the Beijing Morning Post, the air becomes temporarily bright and clean after the dust fighter has passed by.

The machine usually makes two runs a day, but may need to be used 3 to 5 times a day on days with heavy smog.

According to the company providing the service, other districts in Beijing have expressed an

interest in the dust suppression system, so these fog cannons could become a very familiar sight on the streets of the Chinese capital.

Pakistan, a close partner of China, is also battling smog in its plains including Lahore, Gujranwala, Sahiwal, Faisalabad, and Rawalpindi. And these fog cannons can play a major role in bringing down the dangerous level of hazardous smog in Pakistan as well. The authorities in Pakistan must seriously think about it and ask its “all-weather friend” for this innovative invention to help control the rising smog.


Article at Daily Pakistan

Fog Cannons Helping to Battle Beijing Smog

Two fog cannons have been set to work in Beijing with the aim of reducing levels of harmful PM2.5 particles and dust, reports Beijing Morning Post on Thursday.

The mobile blowers, also known as dust suppression systems or dust fighters, are designed to dampen the air and control particulate matter, and are normally found at coal depots and other industrial sites where dust is a problem.

The fog cannons consist of a high power turbine ventilator, which can spray a light rain to a distance of 120 meters, and 60 metres into the air. The operator can also rotate the “cannon” by 270 degrees via remote control. The dust fighter machines used to battle smog in Beijing can make tiny water mist particles as small as dust.

The two machines will mainly be seen in key areas in the city – the Foreign Embassy area, the Olympic park, Asian Sports Village and Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping area.

The Beijing Morning Post reports that, after the dust fighter has passed by, the air becomes temporarily bright and clean.
The machine usually makes two runs a day, but may need to be used 3 to 5 times a day on days with heavy smog.

According to the company providing the service, other districts in Beijing have expressed an interest in the dust suppression system, so these fog cannons could become a very familiar sight on the streets of the capital.

See more at CRI English

I hope you enjoyed these articles!

Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Mining Stock Reviews

SEC 13F Narrative: Barrick Gold Corp (ABX) Stock Value Rose While Group One Trading LP Raised Holding by $13.57 Million

SEC 13F Narrative: Barrick Gold Corp (ABX) Stock Value Rose While Group One Trading LP Raised Holding by $13.57 Million

Group One Trading Lp increased its stake in Barrick Gold Corp (ABX) by 43% based on its latest 2016Q2 regulatory filing with the SEC. Group One Trading Lp bought 646,015 shares as the company’s stock rose 56.41% with the market. The institutional investor held 2.15M shares of the precious metals company at the end of 2016Q2, valued at $45.87M, up from 1.50M at the end of the previous reported quarter. Group One Trading Lp who had been investing in Barrick Gold Corp for a number of months, seems to be bullish on the $18.42B market cap company. The stock decreased 8.58% or $1.48 during the last trading session, hitting $15.77. About 42,953 shares traded hands. Barrick Gold Corporation (USA) (NYSE:ABX) has declined 3.31% since April 11, 2016 and is downtrending. It has underperformed by 9.46% the S&P500.

Group One Trading Lp, which manages about $8.45B US Long portfolio, decreased its stake in Continental Resources Inc (Put) by 68,400 shares to 152,100 shares, valued at $6.89M in 2016Q2, according to the filing. It also reduced its holding in United States Stl Corp New (Put) by 638,600 shares in the quarter, leaving it with 1.29 million shares, and cut its stake in Newell Brands Inc (Call).

More notable recent Barrick Gold Corporation (USA) (NYSE:ABX) news were published by: which released: “Why Barrick Gold Corporation (USA) (ABX), Sturm Ruger & Company Inc (RGR) and …” on November 10, 2016, also with their article: “Why EarthLink Holdings Corp. (ELNK), GoPro Inc (GPRO) and Barrick Gold …” published on November 07, 2016, published: “Barrick Gold Corporation (USA) (ABX)” on August 24, 2016. More interesting news about Barrick Gold Corporation (USA) (NYSE:ABX) were released by: and their article: “Barrick Gold Corporation (USA): 3 Pros, 3 Cons of ABX Stock” published on September 08, 2016 as well as‘s news article titled: “Trade of the Day: Barrick Gold Corporation (USA) (NYSE:ABX)” with publication date: October 10, 2016.

According to Zacks Investment Research, “Barrick Gold Corporation is a leading international gold producer with low-cost mines in North and South America.”

For more on this article please go to

Analyst Review: Gold Fields Limited (NYSE:GFI)

A number of investment brokers have recently updated their price targets on shares of Gold Fields Limited (NYSE:GFI).

Most recent broker ratings

11/07/2016 – Gold Fields Limited had its “outperform” rating reiterated by analysts at RBC Capital.

08/18/2016 – Gold Fields Limited had its “sell” rating reiterated by analysts at Citigroup.

07/12/2016 – Gold Fields Limited was downgraded to “neutral” by analysts at JP Morgan.

07/08/2016 – Gold Fields Limited was upgraded to “buy” by analysts at Goldman Sachs.

03/15/2016 – Gold Fields Limited had its “neutral” rating reiterated by analysts at Macquarie.

08/31/2015 – Gold Fields Limited was upgraded to “sector perform” by analysts at Scotiabank.

05/26/2015 – Gold Fields Limited was upgraded to “buy” by analysts at HSBC.

05/26/2015 – Gold Fields Limited was upgraded to “hold” by analysts at Deutsche Bank.

05/13/2015 – Gold Fields Limited was upgraded to “neutral” by analysts at UBS.

05/12/2015 – Gold Fields Limited was downgraded to “hold” by analysts at Zacks.

01/20/2015 – Gold Fields Limited was downgraded to “sector perform” by analysts at CIBC.

02/21/2014 – Gold Fields Limited was upgraded to “overweight” by analysts at EVA Dimensions.

02/20/2014 – Gold Fields Limited was downgraded to “sell” by analysts at TheStreet.

02/18/2014 – Gold Fields Limited was downgraded to “equal weight” by analysts at Morgan Stanley.

11/25/2013 – Gold Fields Limited was upgraded to “neutral” by analysts at Bank of America Merrill Lynch. They now have a USD 4.7 price target on the stock.

The share price of Gold Fields Limited (NYSE:GFI) was down -8.78% during the last day of trading, with a day high of 4.02. 8979107 shares were traded during the last session.

The stock’s 50 day moving average is 4.34 and its 200 day moving average is 4.86. The stock’s market capitalization is 3.07B. Gold Fields Limited has a 52-week low of 2.04 and a 52-week high of 6.60.

Gold Fields Limited (Gold Fields) is a gold mining company. The Company is a producer of gold and a holder of gold reserves. The Company is involved in underground and surface gold and copper mining and related activities, including exploration, development, extraction, processing and smelting. It has approximately eight producing mines located in South Africa, Ghana, Australia and Peru. It operates through four segments: South Africa, Ghana, Australia and Peru. Its South African operation is South Deep. Gold Fields also owns the St. Ives mine, the Agnew mine and the Yilgarn South Assets in Australia and has an interest in each of the Tarkwa gold mine and the Damang gold mine in Ghana. Gold Fields also owns an economic interest in the Cerro Corona mine. In Peru, Gold Fields also produces copper. In addition, Gold Fields has gold and other precious metal exploration activities and interests in Africa, Eurasia, Australasia and the Americas.
This information courtesy of
Thank you for reading!  Have a great day!
Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.


Minerals To Metals Symposium 2016

The MtM Research Symposium was held at the V&A Waterfront on the 25th and 26th November 2016. Have a look at the attachment

MtM Research Symposium – 2016


Four Bucket DustWatch unit. Dust Monitoring Equipment - providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and related Occupational Diseases

This is a good article from :

PARTHA DAS SHARMA’s Weblog on “Keeping World Environment Safer and Greener”

Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and related Occupational Diseases – Nuisance to be controlled for improvement of general environment, safety and health standard:

1.0. Introduction – Air pollution is the presence of high concentration of contamination, dust, smokes etc., in the general body of air man breaths. Dust is defined as particulate matter as “any airborne finely divided solid or liquid material with a diameter smaller than 100 micrometers.” Dust and smoke are the two major components of particulate matter. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and mold spores may be suspended as particles. Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it’s also called smog. These materials come from various sources, such as, various industrial processes, paved and unpaved roadways, construction and demolition sites, parking lots, storage piles, handling and transfer of materials, and open areas. Some air pollutants are poisonous. Inhaling them can increase the chances of health problems. In fact, dust when inhaled can increase breathing problems, damage lung tissue, and aggravate existing health problems. In addition to health concerns, dust generated from various activities can reduce visibility, resulting in accidents. Therefore, every federal Govt. has stringent regulations which require prevention, reduction and/or mitigation of dust emissions.

Thus, prime sources of air pollution are the industrial activities or processes releasing large quantity of pollutants in the atmosphere. These pollutants are mainly:

(a) Smoke comes out from various industries like, power plants, chemical plants, other manufacturing facilities, motor vehicles, etc.;

(b) Burning of wood, coal in furnaces and incinerators;

(c) Gaseous pollutants from Oil refining industries;

(d) Dust generated and thrown to general atmosphere by various industries such as cement plants, ore / stone crushing units, mining industries due to rock drilling & movements of mining machineries & blasting etc.;

(e) Waste deposition for landfills which generate methane;

(f) Toxic / germ / noxious gasses and fumes generated from military activities and explosives blasting in mines.

2.0. Mechanism of Adverse Impact of Smoke Pollutant – The main sources of smoke pollutants in urban areas are Petrol / Diesel driven motor vehicles, Fuel combustion in stationary sources including residential, commercial and industrial heating / cooling system and coal-burning power plants etc.

Petrol / Diesel driven motor vehicles produce high levels of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) / Carbon Monoxide (CO), major source of Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx). Fuel combustion in stationary sources is the dominant source of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2).

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – This is one of the major gas pollutants in the atmosphere. Major sources of CO2 are due to burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Industrially developed countries like USA, Russia etc., account for more than 65% of CO2 emission. Less developed countries with 80% of world’s population responsible for about 35% of CO2 emission. Due to high growth reported from less developed countries in last decade, it is estimated that, the Carbon dioxide emissions may rise from these areas and by 2020 their contribution may become 50%. It has also been seen that, Carbon dioxide emissions are rising by 4% annually.

As ocean water contain about 60 times more CO2 than atmosphere; CO2 released by the industry leads to disturbance of equilibrium of concentration of CO2 in the system. In such a scenario, the oceans would absorb more and more CO2 and atmosphere would also remain excess of CO2. As water warms, ocean’s ability to absorb CO2 is reduced. CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space. This produces the so-called “Greenhouse Effect” that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night. This so-called “Greenhouse Effect” is responsible for GLOBAL WARMING. Currently Carbon Dioxide is responsible for major portion of the global warming trend.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) – They come mainly from nitrogen based fertilizers, deforestation, and biomass burning. Nitrogen oxides contribute mostly as atmospheric contaminants. These gases are responsible in the formation of both acid precipitation and photochemical smog and causes nitrogen loading. These gases have a role in reducing stratospheric ozone.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) – Sulfur dioxide is produced by combustion of sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal and fuel oils. SO2 also produced in the process of producing Sulfuric Acid and in metallurgical process involving ores that contain sulfur. Sulfur oxides can injure man, plants and materials. As emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide from stationary sources are transported long distances by winds, they form secondary pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid vapor, and droplets containing solutions of sulfuric acid, sulfate, and nitrate salts. These chemicals descend to the earth’s surface in wet form as rain or snow and in dry form as a gases fog, dew, or solid particles. This is known as acid deposition or acid rain.

Choloroflurocarbons (CFCs) – Chlorofluorocarbons, also known as Freons, are greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. CFCs are responsible for lowering the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere.

Smog – Smog is the result from the irradiation by sunlight of hydrocarbons caused primarily by unburned gasoline emitted by automobiles and other combustion sources. Smog is created by burning coal and heavy oil that contain mostly sulfur impurities.

[For more refer Pollution from Motor Vehicles ]

3.0. Mechanism of air pollution by particulate matters (Fine and Coarse Dust particles) – ‘Fine particles’ are less than 2.5 micron in size and require electron microscope for detection, however, they are much larger than the molecules of Ozone etc., and other gaseous pollutants, which are thousands times smaller and cannot be seen through even electron microscope.

Fine particles are formed by the condensation of molecules into solid or liquid droplets, whereas larger particles are mostly formed by mechanical breakdown of material or crushing of minerals. ‘Coarse particles’ are between 2.5 to 10 micron size, and cannot penetrate as readily as of Fine particle; however, it has been seen these are responsible for serious health hazards. The severity of the health hazards vary with the chemical nature of the particles.

The inhalation of particles has been linked with illness and deaths from heart and lung disease as a result of both short- and long-term exposures. People with heart and lung disease may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue etc., when exposed to particulate-matter pollutants. Inhalation of particulate matter can increase susceptibility to respiratory infections such as Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis. The general medical term given for such lung diseases is ‘Pneumoconiosis’.

Emissions from diesel-fuel combustion in vehicles / engines / equipments; Dusts from cement plants, power plants, chemical plants, mines are a special problem, specially for those individuals breathing in close proximity to such atmosphere. Cars, trucks and off-road engines emit more than half a million tones of diesel particulate matter per year.

3.1. Controlling Airborne Particulate Matters – Airborne particulate matters (PM) emissions can be minimized by pollution prevention and emission control measures. Prevention, which is frequently more cost-effective than control, should be emphasized. Special attention should be given to mitigate the effects, where toxics associated with particulate emissions may pose a significant environmental risk.

Measures such as improved process design, operation, maintenance, housekeeping, and other management practices can reduce emissions. By improving combustion efficiency in Diesel engines, generation of particulate matters can be significantly reduced. Proper fuel-firing practices and combustion zone configuration, along with an adequate amount of excess air, can achieve lower PICs (products of incomplete combustion). Few following steps should be adhered to control PM:

a. Choosing cleaner fuels – Natural gas used as fuel emits negligible amounts of particulate matter.

b. Low-ash fossil fuels contain less noncombustible, ash-forming mineral matter and thus generate lower levels of particulate emissions.

c. Reduction of ash by coal cleaning reduces the generation of ash and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions by up to 40%.

d. The use of more efficient technologies or process changes can reduce PIC emissions.

e. Advanced coal combustion technologies such as coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion are examples of cleaner processes that may lower PICs by approximately 10%.

f. A variety of particulate removal technologies, are available – these are (a) Inertial or impingement separators, (b) Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) , (c) Filters and dust collectors (baghouses), (d) Wet scrubbers that rely on a liquid spray to remove dust particles from a gas stream.

4.0. Dust in cement industry – Its prevention and collection enhances environment standard : The manufacturing of cement involves mining; crushing and grinding of raw materials (mostly limestone and clay); calcinating the material in rotary kiln; cooling the resulting clinker; mixing the clinker with Gypsum; and milling, storing and bagging the finished cement. The cement manufacturing process generates lot of dust, which is captured and recycled to the process. Gasses from clinker cooler are used as secondary combustion air. The process, using pre-heaters and pre-calciners, is both economically and environmentally preferable to wet process because of techno-economic advantages of the energy saving dry system over wet. Certain other solids such as pulverized fly ash from power plants, slag, roasted pyrite residue and foundry sand can be used as additives to prepare blended cement.


a. Dust generation:Generation of fine particulates and dust are inherent in the process; but most are recovered and recycled. The sources of dust emission include clinker cooler, crushers, grinders and material-handling equipments. Material-handling operations such as conveyors result in fugitive dust emission.

b. Prevention and control of dust: The priority in the cement industry is to minimize the increase in ambient particulate levels by reducing the mass load emitted from the stacks, from fugitive emissions, and from other sources. Collection and recycling of dust in the kiln gases in required to improve the efficiency of the operation and to reduce atmospheric emissions. Units that are well designed, well operated, and well maintained can normally achieve generation of less than 0.2 kilograms of dust per metric tonne (kg /t) of clinker, using dust recovery systems. For control of fugitive dust (a) ventilation systems should be used in conjunction with hoods and enclosures covering transfer points and conveyors; (b) Drop distances should be minimized by the use of adjustable conveyors; (c) Dusty areas such as roads should be wetted down to reduce dust generation; (d) Appropriate stormwater and runoff control systems should be provided to minimize the quantities of suspended material carried off site.

c. Mechanical systems for controlling dust: Several mechanical equipments are used in cement manufacturing plant to control / collect dust. These are:

(i) Dust collector – A dust collector (bag house) is a typically low strength enclosure that separates dust from a gas stream by passing the gas through a media filter. The dust is collected on either the inside or the outside of the filter. A pulse of air or mechanical vibration removes the layer of dust from the filter. This type of filter is typically efficient when particle sizes are in the 0.01 to 20 micron range.

(ii) Cyclone – Dust laden gas enters the chamber from a tangential direction at the outer wall of the device, forming a vortex as it swirls within the chamber. The larger articulates, because of their greater inertia, move outward and are forced against the chamber wall. Slowed by friction with the wall surface, they then slide down the wall into a conical dust hopper at the bottom of the cyclone. The cleaned air swirls upward in a narrower spiral through an inner cylinder and emerges from an outlet at the top. Accumulated particulate dust is deposited into a hopper, dust bin or screw conveyor at the base of the collector. Cyclones are typically used as pre-cleaners and are followed by more efficient air-cleaning equipment such as electrostatic

(iii) Electrostatic Precipitator – In an electrostatic precipitator, particles suspended in the air stream are given an electric charge as they enter the unit and are then removed by the influence of an electric field. A high DC voltage (as much as 100,000 volts) is applied to the discharge electrodes to charge the particles, which then are attracted to oppositely charged collection electrodes, on which they become trapped. An electrostatic precipitator can remove particulates as small as 1 μm (0.00004 inch) with an efficiency exceeding 99 percent.

5.0. Dust in Coal Handling Plant (CHP) and its control systems:

hermal power plants (coal-fired power plants) use coal as their fuel. To handle the coal, each power station is equipped with a coal handling plant. The coal has to be sized, processed, and handled which should be done effectively and efficiently. The major factor which reduces the staff efficiency in operation of coal handling plant is the working environment i.e. a dusty atmosphere and condition. Lots of care is always needed to reduce dust emission. In developing countries, all most all systems used in power station coal handling plants are wet dust suppression systems.

5.1. After dust is formed, control systems are used to reduce dust emissions. Although installing a dust control system does not assure total prevention of dust emissions, a well-designed dust control system can protect workers and often provide other benefits, such as (a) Preventing or reducing risk of dust explosion or fire; (b) Increasing visibility and reducing probability of accidents; (c) Preventing unpleasant odors; (d) Reducing cleanup and maintenance costs; (e) Reducing equipment wear, especially for components such as bearings and pulleys on which fine dust can cause a “grinding” effect and increase wear or abrasion rates; (f) Increasing worker morale and productivity; (f) Assuring continuous compliance with existing health regulations. In addition, proper planning, design, installation, operation, and maintenance are essential for an efficient, cost-effective, and reliable dust control system.

5.2. There are two basic types of dust control systems currently used in minerals processing operations are:

(a) Dust collection system – Dust collection systems use ventilation principles to capture the dust-filled air-stream and carry it away from the source through ductwork to the collector. A typical dust collection system consists of four major components, such as (1) An exhaust hood to capture dust emissions at the source; (2) Ductwork to transport the captured dust to a dust collector; (3) A dust collector to remove the dust from the air; (4) A fan and motor to provide the necessary exhaust volume and energy.

(b) Wet dust suppression system – Wet dust suppression techniques use water sprays to wet the material so that it generates less dust. There are two different types of wet dust suppression:


(i) wets the dust before it is airborne (surface wetting) and

(ii) wets the dust after it becomes airborne. In many cases surfactants or chemical foams are often added to the water into these systems in order to improve performance.

A water spray with surfactant means that a surfactant has been added to the water in order to lower the surface tension of the water droplets and allow these droplets to spread further over the material and also to allow deeper penetration into the material.

i. Surface wetting system: The principle behind surface wetting is the idea that dust will not even be given a chance to form and become airborne. With this method, effective wetting of the material can take place by static spreading (wetting material while it is stationary) and dynamic spreading (wetting material while it is moving). For static wetting, more effective dust suppression arises by increasing the surface coverage by either reducing the droplet diameter or its contact angle. For dynamic spreading, more factors come into play such as the surface tension of the liquid, the droplet diameter, the size of the material being suppressed, and the droplet impact velocity.

ii. Airborne dust capture system –Airborne dust capture systems may also use a water-spray technique; however, airborne dust particles are sprayed with atomized water. When the dust particles collide with the water droplets, agglomerates are formed.  These agglomerates become too heavy to remain airborne and settle. Airborne dust wet suppression systems work on the principle of spraying very small water droplets into airborne dust. When the small droplets collide with the airborne dust particles, they stick to each other and fall out of the air to the ground. Research showed that, if a sufficient number of water droplets of approximately the same size as the dust particles could be produced, the possibility of collision between the two would be extremely high. It was also determined that if the droplet exceeded the size of the dust particle, there was little probability of impact and the desired precipitation. Instead, the dust particle would move around the droplet.

5.3. System Efficiency: Over the years, water sprays has established the following facts:

(a) For a given spray nozzle, the collection efficiency for small dust particles increases as the pressure increases;

(b) At a given pressure, the efficiency increases as the nozzle design is changed so as to produce smaller droplets. The efficiency of spray dust capture increases by increasing the number of smaller sized spray droplets per unit volume of water utilized and by optimizing the energy transfer of spray droplets with the dust-laden air.

5.4. Sophisticated system like ‘Ultrasonic Dust Suppression’ systems uses water and compressed air to produce micron sized droplets that are able to suppress respirable dust without adding any detectable moisture to the process. Ideal for spray curtains to contain dust within hoppers. The advantages of using Ultrasonic Atomizing Systems for dust suppression can therefore be summarized as: (a) reduced health hazards; (b) decrease in atmospheric pollution; (c) improved working conditions; (d) efficient operation with minimum use of water.

6.0. Air pollution control devices / equipments for industries, in general –The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air.

The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used.

7.0. Occupational Hazards / diseases due to expose in dusty and polluted air:There are certain diseases which are related to one’s occupation. These are caused by constant use of certain substances that sneak into air and then enter our body.

(i) Silicosis (Silico-tuberculosis) occurs due to inhalation of free silica, or SiO2 (Silicon dioxide), while mining or working in industries related to pottery, ceramic, glass, building and construction work. The workers get chronic cough and pain in the chest. Silicosis treatment is extremely limited considering a lack of cure for the disease. However, like all occupational respiratory ailments, it is 100% preventable if exposure is minimized.

(ii) Asbestosis is caused by asbestos, which is used in making ceilings. It is also considered as cancer causing agent. Pathogenesis of the disease is characterized as progressive and irreversible, leading to subsequent respiratory disability. In severe cases, asbestosis results in death from pulmonary hypertension and cardiac failure.

(iii) Byssinosis, also referred to as brown lung disease, is an occupational respiratory disorder characterized by the narrowing of pulmonary airways. It is a disabling lung disease, which is marked by chronic cough and chronic bronchitis due to inhalation of cotton fibers over a long period of time.

(iv) Coal worker’s Pneumoconiosis occurs due to inhalation of coal dust from coal mining industry. Also referred to as black lung disease. The workers suffer from lung problems. Apart from asbestosis, black lung disease is the most frequently occurring type of pneumoconiosis . In terms of disease pathogenesis, a time delay of nearly a decade or more occurs between exposure and disease onset.

7.1. Preventive Measures – The most successful tool of prevention of respiratory diseases from industrial dust is to minimize exposure. However, this is not a practical approach from the perspective of industries such as mining, construction/demolition, refining/manufacturing/processing, where industrial dust is an unavoidable byproduct. In such cases, industries must implement a stringent safety protocol that effectively curtails exposure to potentially hazardous dust sources. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended precautionary measures to reduce exposure to a variety of industrial dust types.

1.    Recognize when industrial dust may be generated and plan ahead to eliminate or control the dust at the source. Awareness and planning are keys to prevention of silicosis.

2.    Do not use silica sand or other substances containing more than 1% crystalline silica as abrasive blasting materials. Substitute less hazardous materials.

3.    Use engineering controls and containment methods such as blast-cleaning machines and cabinets, wet drilling, or wet sawing of silica-containing materials to control the hazard and protect adjacent workers from exposure.

4.    Routinely maintain dust control systems to keep them in good working order.

5.    Practice good personal hygiene to avoid unnecessary exposure to other worksite contaminants such as lead.

6.    Wear disposable or washable protective clothes at the worksite.

7.    Shower (if possible) and change into clean clothes before leaving the worksite to prevent contamination of cars, homes, and other work areas.

8.    Conduct air monitoring to measure worker exposures and ensure that controls are providing adequate protection for workers.

9.    Use adequate respiratory protection when source controls cannot keep silica exposures below the designated limit.

10.    Provide periodic medical examinations for all workers who may be exposed to respirable crystalline silica.

11.    Post warning signs to mark the boundaries of work areas contaminated with respirable crystalline silica.

12    Provide workers with training that includes information about health effects, work practices, and protective equipment for respirable crystalline silica.

13.    Report all cases of silicosis to Federal / State health departments.

8.0. Preventing damaging effects of air and dust pollution – The prevention of air pollution is world wide concern. There have been many investigations into what causes air pollution and the exact methods that work best in the prevention of air pollution. Through the use of many different methods air pollution is becoming easier to control. It is only through various measures, though, that the prevention of air pollution is possible. The government plays a very important role in prevention of air pollution. It is through government regulations that industries are forced to reduce their air pollution and new developments in technology are created to help everyone do their part in the prevention of air pollution. The government also helps by continuously making regulations stricter and enforcing new regulations that help to combat any new found source of air pollution.

In many countries in the world, steps are being taken to stop the damage to our environment from air pollution. Scientific groups study the damaging effects on plant, animal and human life. Legislative bodies write laws to control emissions. Educators in schools and universities teach students, beginning at very young ages, about the effects of air pollution. The first step to solving air pollution is assessment. Researchers have investigated outdoor air pollution and have developed standards for measuring the type and amount of some serious air pollutants.

Scientists must then determine how much exposure to pollutants is harmful. Once exposure levels have been set, steps can be undertaken to reduce exposure to air pollution. These can be accomplished by regulation of man-made pollution through legislation. Many countries have set controls on pollution emissions for transportation vehicles and industry. This is usually done to through a variety of coordinating agencies which monitor the air and the environment.

In the prevention of air pollution it is important to understand about indoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution may seem like an individual concern, but it actually is not just something to worry about in your own home. Indoor air pollution contributes to outdoor air pollution. Prevention is another key to controlling air pollution. The regulatory agencies mentioned above play an essential role in reducing and preventing air pollution in the environment. In addition, it is possible to prevent many types of air pollution that are not regulated through personal, careful attention to our interactions with the environment. One of the most dangerous indoor air pollutants is cigarette smoke. Restricting smoking is an important key to a healthier environment. Legislation to control smoking is in effect in some locations, but personal exposure should be monitored and limited wherever possible.

9.0. Conclusion – Air pollution prevention efforts of companies have generally focused on both source and waste reduction, and on reuse and recycling. Preventing air pollution within a company’s manufacturing processes remains the key approach. Cleaning and processing, switch to non-polluting technologies and materials, reduced generation of waste water, converting hazardous by-products to non-threatening forms, etc. have been attempted in this regard. Indirect air pollution prevention measures by companies also cover transportation. Examples of such measures include: providing company transportation to employees; offering commuting information and selling public transit passes; and encouraging employees to carpool and use public transportation. Companies have also initiated successful programmes such as the use of bicycles to commute to work, telecomuting, and work-at-home etc. to reduce pollution due to commuting.

It should be noted that, only through the efforts of scientists, business leaders, legislators, and individuals can we reduce the amount of air pollution on the planet. This challenge must be met by all of us in order to assure that a healthy environment exist for ourselves and our children.

Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.