Generic Report

Below is an example of a generic report that DustWatch produces for it’s clients.

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CLIENT NAME

DUST FALL-OUT MONITORING PROGRAMME

DUSTWATCH REPORT 8

1 JUNE TO 28 JULY 2018

 

1     Introduction

This report covers a 57-day period.

The unit design and methodology are based on the ASTM D1739 standard.

Additional information is available in the DustWatch manual.  Please contact us to enquire about the latest version of the manual; chris@dustwatch.com

The area of the bucket used in the calculations is 0.022966m2.

There are three units installed and operating on site.  (GPS positions and a map will be added when they are available)

  • Unit 2 – Evac –
    Unit 3 – Carport –
  • Unit 4 – Francis –

 

Generic report - DustWatch cc

Figure 1:  Location of the units.

2      Comments on the result

There are three single bucket units installed and operational at the site, namely the:

  1. Unit No. 2 – Evac (SB2)
  2. Unit No. 3 – Carport (SB3)
  3. Unit No. 4 – Francis (SB4)

The fall-out dust standards from National Dust Control Regulations, 2013.

Restriction Areas Dustfall rate (D) (mg/m2/day) – averaged over 30 days. Permitted frequency of exceeding dust fall rate
Residential area D < 600 Two within a year, not sequential months.
Non-residential area D < 1200 Two within a year, not sequential months.

Table 1:  Acceptable Dust Fall Rates – National Dust Control Regulations, 2013.

  • The Evac unit yielded 299 mg/m2/day in this period. The result decreased and is compliant in this period.
  • The Carport unit yielded 290 mg/m2/day in this period. The result is not a concern.
  • The Francis unit yielded 290mg/m2/day in this period.

The results are below 1200_mg/m2/day and are not a concern.

Unit name Residential or Non-residential Area Applicable Compliance – Dustfall rate (D) (mg/m2/day) – averaged over 30 days. Non-compliant or compliant.  Two within a year, not sequential months.
Unit No. 2 (SB2)
Evac
(Non-residential) D < 1200 Compliant in this period.  Compliant for the year.  Exceedance in January.
Unit No. 3 (SB3)
Carport
(Non-residential) D < 1200 Compliant in this period.  Compliant for the year so far.
Unit No. 4 (SB4)
Francis
(Non-residential) D < 1200 Compliant in this period.  Compliant for the year so far.

Table 2:  Compliance Table 2018

Chris Loans

(BSc Chemical Engineer, pr eng)

Cape Town, Doc Number:  0718191208: Date:  19-Jul-18

 

Weather Information – Weather

 

2018 Temp. (°C) Dew Point (°C) Humidity (%) Visibility (km) Wind (km/h) Precip. (mm) Events
May high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg high sum
2 18 14 11 15 13 11 100 88 71 19 10 0 32 13 39 2.03 Fog , Rain
3 23 18 12 14 11 10 94 67 39 31 19 10 27 16 0.00
4 29 18 8 11 8 6 93 58 15 19 17 10 14 6 0.00
5 21 16 11 14 9 4 88 61 30 31 24 19 35 14 0.00
6 23 17 10 14 12 9 100 79 40 31 20 7 21 6 0.00
7 23 18 13 15 12 5 94 63 26 19 13 10 48 16 1.02 Rain
8 17 15 13 13 12 9 94 80 62 31 11 4 52 32 63 2.03 Rain
9 19 14 10 11 9 7 88 69 39 31 14 8 23 14 0.00
10 20 14 8 11 9 6 94 77 31 31 21 19 16 6 0.00
11 19 14 9 12 10 7 100 81 41 19 12 6 27 11 0.25 Rain
12 20 17 13 14 12 11 100 81 52 31 13 10 23 14 0.51 Rain
13 19 13 8 13 12 9 100 81 58 31 13 2 27 13 40 0.00 Fog
14 21 17 13 14 12 11 94 76 48 31 23 10 29 16 0.00
15 23 16 8 14 11 6 100 85 40 19 6 0 13 6 0.00 Fog
16 29 19 9 13 9 6 94 62 16 31 25 19 16 8 0.00
17 23 19 16 15 14 11 94 73 47 31 23 10 21 16 0.00
18 29 20 12 15 12 9 94 67 23 31 21 19 16 8 0.00
19 24 19 13 13 12 9 88 68 35 31 26 19 23 8 0.00
20 21 18 15 15 14 11 94 80 64 26 13 7 34 18 0.51 Rain
21 18 17 15 15 14 13 94 87 75 19 9 2 40 31 9.91 Rain
22 19 17 13 14 12 11 94 76 50 26 12 4 39 26 0.00 Rain
23 19 17 14 15 14 13 88 79 62 31 12 6 50 29 0.00 Rain
24 17 16 14 16 14 10 100 87 68 19 9 3 39 24 5.08 Rain
25 19 13 8 12 11 7 94 78 48 31 15 10 19 10 0.00
26 21 13 6 13 9 6 100 82 40 31 13 1 14 5 0.00 Fog
27 22 14 7 13 9 6 100 79 32 31 19 0 10 5 0.00 Fog
28 18 14 12 14 13 12 94 86 74 19 10 3 47 23 58 5.08 Rain
29 17 13 9 12 10 7 94 79 49 31 13 6 19 10 0.00 Rain
30 17 12 8 12 9 8 94 80 58 19 12 10 27 13 0.76
31 17 14 13 13 12 11 94 83 68 26 10 2 61 32 72 23.11 Rain
2018 Temp. (°C) Dew Point (°C) Humidity (%) Visibility (km) Wind (km/h) Precip. (mm) Events
Jun high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg low high avg high sum
1 17 13 10 13 9 6 94 69 39 31 11 3 60 34 80 0.00 Rain

 

 

CLIENT: gaositoe mmoledi Period Exceeds 40 Days SAMPLING PERIOD    –  1-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018
UNIT No. LOCATION FROM TO DUST MASS COLLECTED (mg) FILTER DUST mg/m2/day COMMENTS & NOTES
Result
SB2 Evac 1-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018 206 X501 299

Table 3: Fallout Dust Results

CLIENT: gaositoe mmoledi   SAMPLING PERIOD    –  28-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018
UNIT No. LOCATION FROM TO DUST MASS COLLECTED (mg) FILTER DUST mg/m2/day COMMENTS & NOTES
Result
SB3 Carport 28-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018 200 X502 290

Table 4: Fallout Dust Results

CLIENT: gaositoe mmoledi   SAMPLING PERIOD    –  28-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018
UNIT No. LOCATION FROM TO DUST MASS COLLECTED (mg) FILTER DUST mg/m2/day COMMENTS & NOTES
Result
SB4 Francis 28-Jun-2018 28-Jul-2018 200 X500 290

 

Table 5: Fallout Dust Results

Calibration and SANAS Information

The calibration is shown to four decimal places of a gram and is accurate to 0.1 mg.

 

 

 Appendix – Ligno Sulphate Information – Chryso Eco Dust 200D

DustWatch can provide quotations for this product if required and also provide advice on optimized application for different area requirements.  Gravel Roads, Haul Roads, Unpaved open areas, Stockpiles and Berms.  On site advice is available for site specific requirements and optimization.

The application spreadsheet is available here if required.

 

Notes:  (This page has intentionally been left blank)

Occupational Health and Safety

Safety is ever a concern in the workplace.

Occupational Health and Safety

Source – https://www.news24.com/fin24/economy/labour-report-shows-long-road-ahead-for-improving-occupational-health-and-safety-20210730

“Labour report shows long road ahead for improving occupational health and safety
accreditation
Khulekani Magubane

Claims to the Compensation Fund reached over R4 billion in 2016/17 and medical costs account for 66% to 71% of claims.
Mining industry reported injuries declined to a rate of 1 incident per 150 employees per year.
The highest health and safety compliance rate was noted in construction while the lowest compliance was in manufacturing and retail.
There is a worrying lack of compliance with occupational health and safety standards in some sectors, and the Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted some of the critical gaps in keeping employees safe.

This is according to a new report on occupational health and safety by the Department of Employment and Labour (DEL). South Africa is a member of the International Labour Organisation, and the report was jointly commissioned by the ILO and DEL.

Launching the Profile of Occupational Health and Safety South Africa report on Friday, the DEL said safety was still a key concern in some sectors.

According to the report, the monetary value of claims to the Compensation Fund under the department has been rising over the years and reached over R4 billion in 2016/17.

Medical costs account for 66% to 71% of claims.

Worrying compliance levels

According to the report, the number of workplace inspections by the department has grown steadily from 180 818 in 2014/15 to 218 919 in 2018/19. The number of inspectors per employees has also been increased.

However, it raised the alarm regarding compliance with health and safety standards seen in inspections, saying the lowest compliance was in the manufacturing sector with only 241 out of 542 employers in the sector complying, followed by retail, with 996 out of 1897 employers complying.

The highest was in the construction sector, with 3 919 out of 4 725 employers complying; and agriculture, with 461 out of 622 inspected employers complying.

The mining industry reported that injuries declined from 3 036 injuries in 2015 to 2 350 in 2018, amounting to a rate of 1 incident per 150 employees per year. However, fatalities remain a challenge, the report said.

In July, the Minerals Council of South Africa (MCSA) said a total of 32 mineworkers had died to date this year in the country’s mines – an increase from the rate seen a year ago.

Apart from differences between sectors, occupational health and safety specialist Spoponki Kgalamono said there was still a critical gap in SA when it came to the informal economy and work changes introduced by the Covid-19 pandemic.

“During the pandemic it was evident that the national…system was disjointed. As noted by the department and work streams and academia, the efforts of strengthening these systems have allowed us to protect workers, particularly during outbreaks,” said Kgalamono.

Deputy Minister of Labour and Employment Boitumelo Moloi said a lack of recorded data on diseases was a critical gap.

Making changes

The release of the OHS report is part of developing a comprehensive strategy and policy for the prevention of occupational health and safety hazards for employees and reforming the inspection and compensation regime.

Labour and Employment director general Thobile Lamati said the report was not just about occupational health and safety, for which the Department of Employment and Labour is responsible, but also covered all aspects of occupational health and safety in South Africa.

“We are now on the cusp of the development of the fifth OHS Act which I believe will revolutionise the current health and safety practises and offers greater protection for workers, while equally protecting complying employers.

“This bill was the culmination of years of stakeholder and partner interaction at Nedlac. The bill has been approved for public comment by the Cabinet of South Africa,” said Lamati.

Lamati said all government departments and entities, state and non-statutory institutions responsible for occupational health and safety had contributed, as well as business and unions.

Inspector-General of inspections and enforcements at the Department of Employment and Labour Aggy Moiloa said there was also an economic benefit to ensuring employees are kept safe.

“It should not be misconstrued that these are just limited to the human element. It can be argued that a sound national OHS profile would bode well for the health of the economy as well,” said Moiloa.

Business Unity South Africa board member Deidre Penfold said employees have responded positively to efforts to improve occupational health and safety. The report gave useful guidance on where OHS could be improved, Penfold said.

But Black Business Council CEO Gregory Mofokeng noncompliance remained unacceptably high and welcomed the opportunity to address problems.

“We want to work with government and hold accountable all of the businesses that merely pay lip service to occupational health and safety. We will dedicate our resources to realise a reduction of the incidences we are seeing in workplaces,” said Mofokeng.

Mofokeng said healthcare sector improvements were essential to creating complete coverage for injured and ill workers, along with movement in capacitating the National Health Insurance.

Federation of Unions of South Africa general secretary Reifdah Ajam said the report was long overdue.

Cosatu deputy secretary general Solly Phetoe agreed, flagging difficulties with compensation claims.

Compensation Fund commissioner Vuyo Mafat, however, said “the priority should remain to prevent, decrease and eradicate occupational health and safety hazards in the workplace”, adding that illness and injury resulted in a loss of skills to the economy.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

How to get involved in the mining industry

Now that we’ve looked at various mining activities in South Africa, maybe you are keen to be involved.  Here’s how you can make a start.

How to get involved in the mining industry

Source: https://www.miningsafety.co.za/news/how-to-get-involved-in-the-mining-industry/

How to get involved in the mining industry
October 30, 2020

In the startup scene, few entrepreneurs will look to the mining sector. The industry is a giant and competes on the world stage. But because South Africa is so confident in its natural reserves this sector offers ample opportunity to innovators and self-starters.

South Africa has rich natural reserves

The mining industry in 2016 attributed to 8 percent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). And the mining sector is considered to be the fifth largest mining sector, in terms of GDP, globally. South Africa has the world’s largest reserves of manganese and platinum group metals and is home to some of the biggest reserves of gold, diamonds, chromite ore and vanadium.

The gold and diamond mining industries are one of the most important foreign exchange earners for the country and gold accounts for more than one-third of the exports. South Africa can also boast enormous coal and chrome production. And, there’s still potential for more exploration in some untapped areas thought to be deposits of more precious metals and types of minerals.

Now tapping into this industry may feel overwhelming

You can’t just simply begin mining and most entrepreneurs would believe that setting up a mining company is a capital-intensive exercise. Of course, if you’re planning on embarking on an exhaustive exploration mission then sure you’re going to need some serious funding to cover the excessive costs. But you don’t need to do that to be involved in this sector.

The mining industry makes use of advanced technologies

The mining sector cannot afford to reject new technologies and advanced processes. It is too big an industry to continue with old hat methods and if mining companies don’t embrace modern technology they are likely to fail. New technologies such as data collection, cloud-based networks, wearable technologies, and drones are all types of examples of products and industries assisting the mining sector. And if your company is aligned with this type of technology then becoming involved in the mining sector is easy enough.

Environmental concerns are a big deal in the mining sector

Reducing energy consumption and cultivating renewable energy sources is top of mind in just about every industry. In the mining industry, in particular, running an environmentally responsible operation results in cost savings as well as benefitting the planet.

By employing energy efficient technologies and automating various processes which optimise energy consumption mining companies are able to enjoy major savings. According to a report by Deloitte last year, some mining companies have seen a saving of up to 40 percent in expenses. An environmentally aligned startup can tailor their offering to the mining sector and enjoy major success.

Health and safety services are paramount to the mining sector’s performance

In South Africa, health and safety on mines are extremely important. HIV and TB are two diseases directly affecting mineworkers in South Africa. It is such a problem that this year the government introduced a National Strategic Plan to run a course of five years so that it may reduce the mortality rates. Mining companies must make provisions for people catching these diseases and face up to what is happening amongst its workers on site. Sex education and access to family planning and medication are crucial for the mines to be considered safe and secure work. This National Strategic Plan outlines the framework for a multi-sectoral partnership to be formed. This will specifically focus on accelerating the reduction of morbidity and mortality directly associated with TB, HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Furthermore, occupational health and safety cannot be more important than in the mining industry. Mining companies are held to strict guidelines and legislation that’s in place to prevent workplace fatalities and injuries.

Health and safety practice, personal protective gear, clean up operations and critical training courses are all ways of getting your foot in the door of the mining sector as a small business. As an entrepreneur, if you decide to create a company that offers training or products and services that address either the concern around HIV and TB or you offer something that aligns with occupational health and safety, you’ll find yourself quickly entrenched in a dangerous sector.

Once you have an idea that fits in within the needs of the mining sector you will need to create a business plan. You’ll likely be able to get funding from a government grant if you are able to jump through the hoops supplied. Alternatively, you can apply for capital from the bank. Mining equipment funding is available to entrepreneurs who wish to enter the sector.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Women in Mining

To continue our mining theme, let’s take a look at woman in this challenging industry.

Woman in mining - image from article source (see link)

SOurce: https://www.miningsafety.co.za/news/rosond-celebrates-its-incredible-team-of-women-in-mining/

Rosond celebrates its incredible team of women in mining
July 27, 2021

The mining industry has traditionally been a male-dominated environment. Nowhere is this more evident than in exploration drilling, where handling the drill rods alone requires substantial physical strength and dexterity, in addition to being able to load and unload heavy equipment from the drill rigs itself. However, when drilling technology solutions provider Rosond of Midrand designed and developed a next-generation drill rig that automates this arduous and dangerous process, an opportunity arose for several women to be deployed at Kumba Iron Ore in the Northern Cape. Recruiting and training this team formed part of the company’s tender with Anglo American, explains Rosond MD Ricardo Ribeiro.

“What I enjoy most about my job is that we always work as a team. This truly creates a family environment where everybody is there for each other. I feel empowered, because for many years only men were allowed to work in the mining industry. I would like to thank Rosond for giving me such a big opportunity. I know I still have much to learn, which is why I am so excited about this job and being part of women in mining,” says Bolokang Innocentiah Mere, who lives in Kathu. Her role as a Grade Control Drill Assistant is to ensure that all samples taken are labelled correctly, and to assist with set-up when relocating to the next exploration site.

Drill Assistant Lesogo Mavis Kanon, who works at Kuruman, agrees that women like herself are paving the way for increased gender equality in the mining industry. “What I enjoy most about my job is acquiring the knowledge to overcome the challenges I face on a daily basis. Rosond has taught me that people should not be judged on gender alone, but on skills and competency. I am blessed to be in my current position, as this opportunity has shown me that anything is possible, and that we can indeed bring about a positive change to the industry.”

Reabetswe Prudence Kaekae comments that her position as Drill Assistant has allowed her to not only operate the machinery itself, but also to think out-of-the-box and be more multitasked. “It is quite challenging yet interesting at the same time. It is a different working environment that you become used to as time goes by.” Her vision is to learn more about the mining industry so she can become an instructor herself one day, teaching the next generation of women about the latest drill rig technology being developed by Rosond.

Diamond Drill Assistant Agness Sethunya has a wide range of tasks, from washing core samples to general paperwork. “I enjoy learning new things each and every single day, but mostly I enjoy the challenges I have to tackle as a woman working with drill rigs and other heavy equipment.” Her future plan is to become a Safety Officer and ultimately a qualified engineer.

Mercia Monwe is an assistant on the Ros 8II EX drill rig, and says she enjoys learning from her fellow drill crew members, who are highly mindful of safety and efficiency while on the job. “At first it was a challenge, but at the end of the day I learned that even working in a male-dominated industry, I can achieve anything.”

Being able to work in the mining industry is an incredible achievement, says Drill Assistant Palesa Cheraldine Buneditte, adding that she now has access to opportunities for personal and career growth that were simply unavailable to her before. Even Letlhogonolo Moricho, who works as a cleaner at Kolomela, has been inspired by what her fellow female colleagues have achieved. “I am very excited to be a part of the mining industry, which has put me on a path to learn more and one day maybe even get to work on the drill rigs themselves.”

Rosond has supplied 28 next-generation drill rigs to the Kolomela and Sishen mines as part of a R2 billion, five-year tender to ensure Anglo American is up to date with the latest drilling technology as it modernises its geoscience operations. The drill rigs feature increased safety due to the fact that they are largely automated, and include control cabins with air-conditioning and ablution facilities attached.”

 

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

 

Gold Mining South Africa

A last look at South African mining – this time it’s gold mining.

 

Gold Mining South Africa

Source – https://www.mineralscouncil.org.za/sa-mining/gold

“GOLD

KEY FACTS AND FIGURES

The Witwatersrand Basin remains the world’s largest gold resource
Gold sales increased by 3.7% at R72.6 billion in 2019 (R70 billion in 2018)
Gold production decreased to 101.3 tonnes in 2019 (117 tonnes in 2018)
At the current gold price more than half of the South African gold mining industry is marginal
South African gold only accounts for 4.2% of global gold production
Employment in the gold sector has declined over the years
The gold industry currently employs 95,130 (100,189 people in 2018)
Total employee earnings have soared from R15.9 billion in 2008 to R24.3 billion in 2019 (27.6 billion in 2018)

LOCATION AND GEOLOGY

The Witwatersrand gold-producing area in South Africa is underlain by an underground geological formation also known as the Witwatersrand Basin. It lies on the Kaapvaal Craton, and is one of the world’s largest gold placer deposits. This elliptical basin stretches over an arc of roughly 400km traversing across the Free State, North West and Gauteng provinces in South Africa. Gold occurs only along the northern and western margins of this basin, but not in a continuous band.

The basin is covered by younger sedimentary and volcanic rocks such as those making up the Ventersdorp and Karoo Supergroups. The underlying sedimentary rock has been laid down over a period which ended about 2,700 million years ago when widespread faulting resulted in extensive lava flows covering the Witwatersrand Basin.

The gold was embedded in a conglomerate and, at first, it was assumed that this was alluvial gold in an old riverbed. It was then found that the conglomerate, or conglomeratic zone, was part of a sedimentary succession. It was traced east and westward for a continuous distance of 50km and became known as the Central Rand Gold Field.

The gold in this basin occurs in the coarse grained conglomerates forming the upper portions of the “Witwatersrand Supergroup” that hosts roughly 7,000m of sedimentation. It is found here in association with uranium, quartz, carbon seams, phyllosilicates and pyrite. The mineralisation of the Witwatersrand reefs is extensive and a total of 70 ore minerals, including diamonds, have been documented from the Witwatersrand conglomerates.

After 120 years of mining on the Kaapvaal Craton, operations in this area have reached depths of 4,000m. At this depth, the natural rock temperatures reach about 50°C and the virgin vertical rock pressures of the order of 100MPa provide an indication of the enormity of the challenges and hazards facing mining.

GOLD MINING IN SOUTH AFRICA

The discovery of gold in the late 19th century spawned the development of the city of Johannesburg, Egoli, or the City of Gold, and numerous towns around the gold diggings, including Barberton and Pilgrim’s Rest. In the 20th century, the large gold mines on the West Wits line were established, and towns like Carletonville and Klerksdorp became important and busy centres around the world-famous gold mines: Kloof, Driefontein and Western Deep Levels. For many years, South Africa was the world’s primary gold producer.

The glory days of the gold sector started waning in the early 21st century as mines went deeper to find the rich reef patches. At the same time, the gold price had dropped significantly from the previous highs, and the global economy hit headwinds, culminating in the global financial crisis in 2008. Although the crisis has eased in many countries, the effects on the South African mining industry have been profound and enduring.

Mining contributed R360.9 billion to South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP) during 2019, up from R351 billion in 2018.

Employment in the gold sector has continued to decline since the 1980s with around 95,130 workers currently employed. At the same time, productivity has declined and wages have risen. Despite this, gold mining activities remain a mainstay of employment in many communities around the country, and every employee in the gold sector supports between five and 10 other dependants. On the upside, every direct job in the mining sector results in two indirect jobs being created elsewhere.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Diamond Mining

Here’s another look at mining in South Africa – this time, diamond mining

Diamond Mining

Source – https://www.mineralscouncil.org.za/sa-mining/diamonds

DIAMONDS

Gem diamonds are, arguably, the ultimate luxury available to millions of people around the globe. They are available in quantities that most other gems fail to come anywhere near but the operating costs, the labour and the skills that go into producing even the smallest polished gem mean that prices at the jeweller’s counter reflect an individual gem’s luxury status.

Diamonds, it is well known, are an intricate lattice of carbon atoms, a crystal structure that imparts a hardness unmatched elsewhere in nature. And it is this hardness that makes the finest diamonds crucial in the manufacture of high-tech cutting, grinding and polishing tools. Without diamond grit (bort or boart as it is known) much of the world’s modern manufacturing would be made far more difficult than it is.

While diamond mining has been taking in place in South Africa for almost a century and a half, the country’s diamond sector is far from reaching the end of its life. Developments at the country’s three largest mines are designed to expand their outputs and to extend their lives to anywhere between a quarter and a half a century.

KEY FACTS AND FIGURES

The first diamond, the appropriately named Eureka, was discovered in South Africa near Hopetown in 1867 — it weighed 21.25 carats
The largest diamond discovered was the Cullinan found at the Premier Mine in 1905 — it weighted 3,106 carats uncut
At the start diamond discoveries were in alluvial deposits — in 1869 the first diamonds were found in yellow ground (and then in blue ground) near and in what was to become Kimberley, the world’s diamond capital (the diamond matrix was subsequently named kimberlite)
Diamonds were later discovered in significant quantities in kimberlites in what was then known as the Transvaal – the Cullinan mine in 1902 and Venetia (opened in 1992) and the Finsch mine in the Northern Cape opened in 1978
In 2019 South Africa produced 7.2 million carats of diamonds (9.9 million carats in 2018)
The total diamond sales in 2019 was R13.3 billion (R17.3 billion in 2018)
The diamond mining industry employed 15,728 people in 2019 (16,361 in 2018)
De Beers, the name which is synonymous with diamonds, was founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1888 and for many years dominated the world’s diamond market

LOCATION AND GEOLOGY

Natural diamonds were formed some 3.3 billion years ago in conditions of intense heat and pressure 150km below the earth’s surface.

The primary sources of all of South Africa’s diamonds are kimberlites in ancient, vertically dipping volcanic pipes, mostly located in the vicinity of the city of Kimberley and initially amenable to opencast. They were largely discovered in the latter part of the 19th century. Early in the 20th century, the Premier mine’s volcanic pipe was discovered near Pretoria and, in the final decades of the century, the Finsch mine’s kimberlite pipe was discovered near the town of Lime Acres in the Northern Cape and, later, the Venetia mine’s kimberlite near the town of Alldays in Limpopo province.

Alluvial diamonds and small diamondiferous fissures have been known and worked for many years along the southern banks of the Orange River as well as along and offshore of South Africa’s west coast.

DIAMOND MINING IN SOUTH AFRICA

The underground mining and recovery of diamonds continues to this day in the vicinity of Kimberley, the site of the early main discoveries in the 19th century. It is, however, on limited scale with a major focus on reprocessing old tailings dumps to recover diamonds left behind by older recovery processes.

To the west of Kimberley, and on the southern banks of the Orange River some 60km upstream from Port Nolloth, Trans Hex mines largely alluvial diamonds at its Baken and Bloeddrif operations.

Further north in Limpopo province, the Venetia mine owned by De Beers is South Africa’s largest diamond producer, recovering some 8Mct a year. Mining is currently by opencast methods but the depth limits of the open pit are being reached and an underground mine is being developed to continue production below the open pit. Underground mining will be by conventional block-caving or sub-level caving methods.

The Finsch mine, part of the Petra Diamonds group, is South Africa’s second largest producer and operates exclusively as an underground mine using conventional sub-level caving methods. Finsch produced 1.8Mct in 2019.

Near Pretoria and also part of the Petra group, plant optimisation at the Cullinan mine is ongoing – its production was 1.7Mct in 2019. Cullinan contains a world-class gross resource of 154.9Mct as at 30 June 2019, which suggests its mine life could be significantly longer than the current mine plan to 2030.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Coal Mining South Africa

South Africa is known for it’s strong mining industry.  Let’s take a look at coal mining.

Coal Mining South Africa

Source – https://www.mineralscouncil.org.za/sa-mining/coal

“COAL

KEY FACTS AND FIGURES
The coal industry employed 92,230 people in 2019 (86,647 in 2018), representing about 19% of total employment in the mining sector
258.9 million tonnes produced in 2019 (253Mt in 2018) with total coal sales of R139.3 billion (R146 billion in 2018)
Net investment in the coal industry was R4.5 billion in 2010, decreasing to R2.5 billion in 2018 – an average decline of 15% per year. This is despite the fact that coal is a major source of electricity in the country.
The coal industry spent R61 billion procuring goods and services, most of it locally, thus contributing to the creation and maintaining of jobs in other industries
70% of coal volume is consumed domestically and more than 70% of electricity demand is generated from coal power
Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) serves as the primary export port
RBCT has a dedicated rail line

LOCATION AND GEOLOGY

South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, and date from the Permian period between 280 and 250 Ma. In general terms, they are largely located in the north-eastern quarter of the country. The coal measures are generally shallow, largely unfaulted and lightly inclined, making their exploitation suitable for opencast and mechanised mining.

At current rates of production, South Africa has reserves sufficient to satisfy its needs for more than a century. However the locus of production is gradually shifting away from the traditional Witbank or Emalahleni coal field as collieries approach the end of their productive lives. Emphasis is being placed on exploring and developing the Waterberg coal field as well as others in Limpopo province.

In general, South African coal has a comparatively medium ash content, which can be reduced by washing before sale. Higher grades of final product are delivered to export markets with the lower grade product burned by Eskom’s specially designed power station boiler hearths.

COAL MINING IN SOUTH AFRICA

Coal mining’s advent in South Africa can best be traced to the start of gold mining in the late 19th century, particularly on the Witwatersrand, with the first coal in appreciable tonnages being extracted on the Highveld coal field close to the nascent Witwatersrand gold mines. However, demand began to grow, slowly at first but then exponentially as the country entered a period of industrialisation during and following World War 2. This included a major programme of building power stations, particularly on the coal fields of Witbank and Delmas, as well as Sasol’s major coal-based synfuels and organic chemicals complex at Secunda. Essentially, South Africa was building an industrial future and technical skills base founded firmly on its principal fossil-fuel resource. Searches for other fossil fuels to date have not been successful, and the country’s fossil future remains firmly founded on coal.

For many years, the coal sector remained in local private hands – largely those of the old mining houses. But, particularly during the oil crises of the 1970s, foreign oil companies vied for coal resources and established new collieries destined especially to serve export markets. Following the democratic election of 1994, ownership was transferred increasingly into the hands of historically disadvantaged South Africans, in many cases exceeding the 26% black-ownership level specified by the Mining Charter for 2014.

The Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) was established in 1976 as a partnership between the then leading coal companies with an initial annual capacity of 12Mt. This has steadily increased with a fine balancing of the needs of rail capacity to carry coal from the inland collieries to the coast to its current 91Mt design capacity. For many years, as this export capacity was being expanded, seaborne coal prices were generally greater than domestic prices. Consequently there was considerable competition for capacity at the RBCT and the rail line that serves it. However, the commodities slump of the past few years and the glut of bulk commodities on international markets has resulted in export prices falling by more than half since 2013 as exporters from competing countries struggled to maintain their market shares.

As we approach the century’s second decade, the power stations built over 30 years ago will remain operational at least until mid-century. Eskom is busy building two modern thermal power stations, Medupi and Kusile, which are the country’s northernmost, and based on coal reserves in Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces. No other thermal stations are in the planning stages as government and state-owned Eskom consider the feasibility of taking the nuclear power route.

The coal sector employs 92,230 people, which is the third largest group in the mining sector after gold and platinum group metals. Their annual earnings are R27.9 billion.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Mining South Africa

Here is a little summary of the mining activities in South Africa

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Source: https://www.mineralscouncil.org.za/sa-mining

“MINING IN SA
Economic activity in modern-day South Africa has been centred on mining activities, their ancillary services and supplies. The country’s stock exchange in Johannesburg was established in 1887, a decade after the first diamonds were discovered on the banks of the Orange River, and almost simultaneously with the gold rush on the world-famous Witwatersrand.

In many ways, South Africa’s political, social and economic landscape has been dominated by mining, given that, for so many years, the sector has been the mainstay of the South African economy. Although gold, diamonds, platinum and coal are the most well-known among the minerals and metals mined, South Africa also hosts chrome, vanadium, titanium and a number of other lesser minerals.

KEY MINING FACTS:
In 2018 the mining sector contributed R351 billion to the South African gross domestic product (GDP)
A total of 456,438 people were employed in the mining sector in 2018
Each person employed in the mining sector has up to nine indirect dependants
The mining sector has, for many years, attracted valuable foreign direct investment to South Africa

MAJOR MINING SECTORS IN SA
Mining in South Africa - Coal

COAL
Coal mining’s advent in South Africa can best be traced to the start of gold mining in the late 19th century, particularly on the Witwatersrand, with the first coal in appreciable tonnages extracted on the Highveld coal field close to the nascent Witwatersrand gold mines.

Mining in South Africa - Platinum
PLATINUM
In South Africa the discovery of the first platinum nuggets dates back to 1924. The geologist Hans Merensky’s follow-up work resulted in the discovery of two deposits, each around 100km in length, which became known as the Bushveld Igneous Complex.

Mining in South Africa - Gold
GOLD
The Witwatersrand Basin remains the world’s largest gold resource and has produced more than two billion ounces of gold to date. After 120 years of mining, operations in this area have reached depths of 4,000m, with the natural rock temperatures reach about 50°C.

Mining in South Africa - Diamond
DIAMONDS
While diamond mining has been taking in place in South Africa for almost a century and a half, the country’s diamond sector is far from reaching the end of its life. Developments at the country’s three largest mines are designed to expand their outputs and to extend their lives to anywhere between a quarter and a half a century.”

 

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Tiny But Toxic

Enjoy the read and have a great day!

Image taken from article source - Coal Ash

Source: https://www.technology.org/2021/08/10/new-tests-can-detect-tiny-but-toxic-particles-of-coal-ash-in-soil/

“New tests can detect tiny but toxic particles of coal ash in soil

Posted August 10, 2021

Scientists at Duke University have developed a suite of four new tests that can be used to detect coal ash contamination in soil with unprecedented sensitivity. The tests are designed to analyze soil for the presence of fly ash particles so small that other tests might miss them. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded results are published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology.

Fly ash is part of coal combustion residuals that are generated when a power plant burns pulverized coal. The tiny fly ash particles, which are often microscopic in size, contain high concentrations of arsenic, selenium and other toxic elements, many of which have been enriched through the combustion process.

While the majority of fly ash is captured by traps in the power plant and disposed of in coal ash impoundments and landfills, some particles escape and are emitted into the environment. Over time, these particles can accumulate in soil downwind from the plant, potentially posing risks to the environment and human health.

“Because of the size of these particles, it’s been challenging to detect them and measure how much fly ash has accumulated,” said Avner Vengosh. “Our new methods give us the ability to do that — with high level of certainty.”

Coal combustion residuals are the largest industrial solid wastes produced in the United States. When soil contaminated with fly ash is disturbed or dug up, dust containing the ash can be transported through the air into nearby homes and other indoor environments. Inhaling dust that contains fly ash particles with high levels of toxic metals has been linked with lung and heart disease, cancer, nervous system disorders and other ill effects.

“Being able to trace the contamination back to its source location is essential for protecting public health and identifying where remediation efforts should be focused,” said Zhen Wang, who led the study. “These new methods complement tests we’ve already developed for tracing coal ash in the environment, and expand our range of investigation.”

The new tests are designed to be used together to provide independent corroborations of whether fly ash particles are present in a soil sample and if so, at what proportion to the total soil.

Julie Pett-Ridge, a program director in NSF’s Division of Earth Sciences, added that “the combination of these specific geochemical tools is a powerful approach, establishing a reliable means of detecting the potential environmental risks of coal ash in surface soils.””

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Ten places you forget to vacuum

Dust, dust, dust!  Don’t forget to clean these places in your home!

Ten places that you often forget while vacuuming

Source – https://www.tips-and-tricks.co/cleaning/ten-places-that-you-can-easily-forget-while-vacuuming/

“Do you skip these places while vacuuming?

Are you the type who quickly gets the vacuum cleaning done? Or do you make sure to vacuum every corner? With this checklist you can be sure that your entire house remains dust-free. There are a few places in the house that would like to see the vacuum cleaner more often…

Bottom of the shoe cabinet

You often bring in a lot of dirt on you shoes, which then settles at the bottom of your shoe cabinet. You’ll be storing your footwear in a clean place if you vacuum the shoe cabinet more often.

Your mattress

Mattresses are often forgotten when it comes to cleaning, even though we spend many hours on them. A vacuum cleaner ensures that fewer dust mites will accumulate on your mattress. Don’t forget to turn it over regularly and vacuum both sides when you do that.

Brooms and dusters

Do you clean up crumbs or spills a lot? Often the broom and dustpan are within reach to clean everything. But don’t forget that the dusters and brooms themselves also need to be cleaned from time to time. By placing the vacuum cleaner on the bristles of brooms, you avoid spreading more dust while sweeping.

Air and ventilation grilles

Ventilation grilles are very important for the supply of clean air in your home. They are especially indispensable in the bathroom. Due to the air displacement, these grilles attract a lot of dust. So, while you are vacuuming, vacuum the ventilation grilles from time to time to keep the air exchange really clean.

TV or PC sound boxes

Do you have a beautiful sound system next to your television or computer? The speakers of these systems can also use a freshening up every now and then. This is good for your electronic systems, and they will also last longer. Make sure that the setting on the vacuum cleaner is not too high to prevent damage.

Laptop or computer keyboards

The chances are your computer keyboard is anything but hygienic, especially if you regularly eat in front of your screen. Dust and crumbs can collect in the deep grooves. These areas are easy to clean with a vacuum cleaner. Most people seldom do this, so it’s probably time to clean your keyboard.

Cracks inside the fridge

Cracks in the fridge, the crisps drawer and the back of the refrigerator shelves can collect a lot of dust and other debris. Vacuuming the refrigerator every now and then ensures that you keep your food in a clean environment. In addition, a clean refrigerator uses less energy. Always a bonus!

Window sills and frames

Window sills are often a favorite place for pets. Many people also have plants or decorations in front of their windows. All of this contributes to the fact that window sills quickly become dusty and collect hair and other particles. Use the small brush of your vacuum cleaner to clean the window sills.

Kitchen and wardrobe drawers

Drawers are real dust catchers. To keep your items clean – from cutlery to socks – you also need to vacuum the bottoms of your drawers. This is also a good opportunity to sort the contents again.

Curtains

Use your vacuum cleaner to prevent the dust from your curtains spreading all over the rest of the house. This is a suitable method to clean almost all types of window coverings, from roller blinds to blinds. Choose the right head for the vacuum cleaner to get into every nook and cranny.

 

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.