Landfill Mining

Some interesting articles on landfill mining and it’s potentials as well as the issues regarding SA’s landfill situation.

Mining News

Closure, rehabilitation a major issue as SA’s landfills reach capacity

“With landfill space in South Africa at a premium, the controlled, planned, and systematic filling of landfill cells requires progressive closure and rehabilitation. This is a highly specialised endeavour that requires an integrated infrastructure delivery company like AECOM to drive it.
Landfills may need to be closed for various reasons, including unacceptable environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution, and/or unmanageable air pollution such as dust or odours. Geological issues include dolomitic ground conditions, which can result in water ingress and sinkhole formation. In many instances, improving landfill management and operations is a necessary first step, but if this proves unsuccessful, closure becomes necessary.

Landfills are usually designed with a specific lifespan, determined by the volume of waste that can be handled. Once filled to capacity, landfills must be closed and decommissioned, as stipulated in the Waste Management Licence. However, effective landfill remediation poses a challenge for both public and private entities.

Navigating the regulatory process, coordinating the different phases of the project, and establishing a long-term plan for post-closure reuse are only the beginning. Landfill site problems are often bigger than the eyesore created by the huge piles of waste. At one point or another, landfill sites will have to be closed.

“While this may seem like the end of the story, it is only the beginning of the next chapter in the life of the landfill,” comment Nicolas Vanhecke, Practice Lead: Remediation Services, and Soleil Jones, Environmental Scientist, at AECOM.

The process of landfill closure and remediation is legislated by the National Environmental Management Waste Act (NEMWA), the Water Act and the Waste Management Series, as promulgated by the Department of Water and Sanitation.

While it might seem that the closure process only commenced once the landfill has reached the end of its useful life, there are factors that can need to be attended to while the site is still operational. The slopes of the waste body must be resolved to ensure they lie at a safe angle.
This should be maintained throughout the operational phase, after which capping is carried out by means of an engineered liner. Furthermore, all stormwater run-off must be diverted away from the waste body so as to separate the clean and dirty water circuits, and to prevent leachate soaking into the waste body, which can result in subsequent groundwater pollution and odours.

The site must also be fully secured, and access-controlled, in order to prevent trespassers. For example, there could be an issue with people remining the waste body for recyclables, which presents a fire risk, as well as allowing rainwater to permeate the waste body.

“In the past, little to no consideration was given to the potential environmental impacts of landfills on human health and the larger environment, which is why today’s landfills are licenced, and with very specific engineering design,” Vanhecke and Jones highlight.

The remediation process depends on factors such as the type and classification of the waste, and the size of the landfill. Most of the time, the remediation process consists of waste reprofiling; capping, usually with topsoil such as clay or with a geotextile; revegetating, usually with indigenous grass; and, finally, closure. Once properly remediated, the landfill site could be used for anything from parkland to recreational infrastructure or even grassland, depending on the preference of the landfill owner, the surrounding community, and the regulatory authorities.

If the site is smaller, site reclamation can be conducted via an excavation-transfer-treatment process. A key element in site reclamation is the transformation of anaerobic to aerobic conditions in the landfilled waste. Depending on the waste accumulated in the landfill, a methane gas plant can be installed to recuperate methane for energy purposes.

Following closure and remediation, the landfill site is subject to a post-closure monitoring period, which is recommended for up to 30 years. This is in order to monitor the integrity of the capping, and the impact of the quality of the groundwater quality in and around the waste body.
There may also be a need for ongoing pumping and treatment of the leachate that gathers in the leachate collection system. The landfill will also most likely require a methane management system, whether that be done by landfill gas harvesting, or regular flaring, so as to prevent methane build-up, fire risk, and air pollution.

Adherence to legislation is key, and therefore a preliminary closure plan and end-use options for the landfill should be outlined from the outset of the project, and addressed ideally in the Environmental Impact Assessment phase. Financial provision must be made for these engineering works and materials, and a more detailed rehabilitation and closure plan must be developed as soon as landfill operations commence.

Some successful international examples of remediated landfills in urban areas include the London Olympic Stadium (2012), the Milan Universal Expo (2015), and the Confluence neighbourhood of Lyon in France, which is one of the biggest landfill rehabilitation projects in Europe.”

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Landfill mining: is this the next big thing in recycling?  World Economic Forum 

“For more than 100 years, the world has been discarding its unwanted waste in landfill sites. There are at least 500,000 of these sites in Europe alone, according to estimates by the European Enhanced Landfill Mining Consortium (EURELCO). Only some are still operational.

What concerns many experts is that a lot of these landfills are located in semi-urban environments. In Europe, fortunately, most of the still-operational landfills are so-called “sanitary” landfills, which are equipped with state-of-the-art environmental protection and gas-collection systems. It means that for these sites environmental pollution and release of greenhouse gas emissions from these landfills are avoided.

An environmental hazard
But this still leaves a good 90% in a “non-sanitary” condition. These landfills, which generally predate the EU’s Landfill Directive of 1999, have little or no protection technologies.

The situation is no better elsewhere in the world: the vast majority of landfills in regions such as Asia and Africa are downright “waste dumps”. These deposits could cause serious environmental problems, ranging from local pollution concerns (health, soil and water) and land-use restrictions to global impacts in terms of greenhouse-gas emissions.

Landfills are one of the major sources of methane emissions, a notoriously powerful greenhouse gas.

The “do nothing” scenario is not an option, as politicians and other stakeholders agreed at a landfill mining seminar organized by the European Parliament and EURELCO in 2015. For the thousands of waste dumps beyond Europe, the same conclusion can be drawn.

But remediation measures are pricey and environmentally risky. It costed Flanders’ public waste agency, OVAM, €80 million to excavate and move hazardous waste to state-of-the-art sanitary landfills between the years 1993 and 2001. For most of the EU member states – not to mention developing countries – costs like these are prohibitive.

Potential goldmines
However, by combining landfill remediation with resource recovery of the excavated waste, the net cost of the remediation activity can be drastically reduced. How? By generating recyclable goods and energy (carriers), all of which can provide much-needed revenue to counterbalance the cost of remediation.

In fact, if landfill mining followed the principles of the “enhanced landfill mining” approach, where higher added value outputs are targeted, the net economic balance of the combined remediation-landfill mining activity can even become positive, which is especially the case for larger landfills where economies of scale become relevant. As such, remediation combined with enhanced landfill mining can generate an income for public waste agencies, and this can then be used to cover the costs of remediating and mining smaller, less economic landfills that pose short-term environmental and health risks.

So, what exactly is enhanced landfill mining?
Officially defined as “the integrated valorization of landfilled waste streams as materials and energy”, enhanced mining extracts valuable materials from both landfilled industrial waste and municipal solid waste.

Industrial residues arise during the production of aluminium, zinc, copper or steel. In many cases these residues contain significant quantities of metals that are short in supply and that are central to the development of clean technologies, such as photovoltaic cells, e-cars or wind turbines.

Enhanced landfill mining is also relevant for municipal solid waste. In this case landfill mining separates waste into directly recyclable materials (glass, plastic, metals, aggregates) and a refuse-derived fuel fraction, which is further converted into high-added-value products. Using the new plasma gasification technology, it is possible to transform this refuse-derived fuel fraction into hydrogen and a mineral residue fraction that is then upcycled into a green, low-carbon cement.

The enhanced landfill mining approach is currently being demonstrated in two flagship projects funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Programme, ETN NEW-MINE (for municipal solid waste) and METGROW+ (for industrial waste).

This sort of mining can transform landfills, particularly those in urban environments, from a threat and a cost, into an opportunity for resource recovery. It closes the loop, injecting additional resource circularity and resilience into the economy.”

For the complete article, please follow the link above

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

DustWatch Training Course 13-15 November 2018

Please note that the training course for Pretoria is scheduled for 13, 14, 15 November 2018.

Kloof Bed and Breakfast

570 Rutgers Street, Moreleta Park, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa
Cellphone: +27 (0)82 923 3730 | Facsimile: +27 (0)86 672 6310
E-mail: kloofbb@telkomsa.net | www.Kloofbb.co.za

Contact Person for accommodation bookings: (Optional – Any accommodation can be used but this is the venue for the training and is recommended)

Erica Lottering

Mobile no: 082 923 3730

Email: kloofbb@telkomsa.net

Website: www.kloofbb.co.za

Please book accommodation if required independently at this venue or an alternative venue.  The training will take place at this venue.

Please diarise those dates if you can make it, and RSVP by 1 November 2018 if possible.

If you would like to attend or to send a representative, then please email chris@dustwatch.com or call on 021 789 0847 / 082 875 0209 to reserve a place.

The costs for the training – R3028 per person per day, and the course runs for three days.  You can also select which days to attend if you do not want to attend all three days.

Below is a brief outline of the course, although the course will be customised to meet the specific needs of those attending.

Please do not hesitate to contact me regarding any queries.

Sincerely

Chris Loans

DustWatch CC – Precipitant Dust Monitoring

082 875 0209 or 021 789 0847 (Chris)
083 308 4764 (Gerry)
0866 181 421 (Fax)
www.dustwatch.com

______________Course Information___________________________________________________

The course has three main topics that will be covered over the three days.

  1. Fallout dust monitoring theory (Day 1)
  2. Fallout dust monitoring practical (Day 2)
  3. Fallout Dust Monitoring Reporting (Day 3)

The fallout dust monitoring section of the course aims to train the trainees so that they are able to do the following.

  1. Understand what fallout dust monitoring achieves and what is collected.  This will include discussion around the legislative requirements and will also address the possible influences of dust sensitive areas like communities, hospitals, farms, and recreational areas.
  2. Prepare buckets, transport buckets and change buckets in the Fallout Dust Monitoring units.
  3. Filter the bucket contents using a filter bench and using the related equipment used in the filtering process.  This includes advice on how to minimise the filtering time and what can be done when samples are taking very long to filter.
  4. Understand how to calculate the fallout dust monitoring results in mg/m2/day and how to interpret these results.
  5. Report writing and presentation options for the results will also be discussed.
  6. Some computer training may also be included in the course if required.
  7. Access to our software for processing of the fallout dust data will also be included after the course.  This can be used to simplify the data collection and report writing and will also provide a database of the fallout dust levels over the years.

The course will be presented by Christopher Loans who is a Professional Chemical Engineer with a Masters in Occupational Hygiene focused on the Mining Industry.

 

Yours faithfully

Chris Loans

021 789 0847

082 875 0209

083 308 4764

chris@dustwatch.com

www.dustwatch.com

 

  1. If you want to be removed from this email list, please just click reply and send the email or call 021 789 0847

Sahara dust may make you cough, but it’s a storm killer

Sahara Desert

An interesting read from Phys.org (please follow the links to the original articles) regarding the effect of dust from the Sahara Desert on the USA.

Sahara Desert

Sahara dust may make you cough, but it’s a storm killer

Phys.org
July 20, 2018, Texas A&M University

“The bad news: Dust from the Sahara Desert in Africa—totaling a staggering 2 to 9 trillion pounds worldwide—has been almost a biblical plague on Texas and much of the Southern United States in recent weeks. The good news: the same dust appears to be a severe storm killer.

Research from a team of scientists led by Texas A&M University has studied Saharan dust and their work is published in the current issue of the Journal of Climate of AMS (American Meteorological Society).

Texas A&M’s Bowen Pan, Tim Logan, and Renyi Zhang in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences analyzed recent NASA satellite images and computer models and said the Saharan dust is composed of sand and other mineral particles that are swept up in air currents and pushed over the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico and other nearby regions.

As the dust-laden air moves, it creates a temperature inversion which in turn tends to prevent cloud—and eventually—storm formation.

It means fewer storms and even hurricanes are less likely to strike when the dust is present.

“The Saharan dust will reflect and absorb sunlight, therefore reduce the sunlight at the Earth’s surface,” said Pan.

“If we have more frequent and severe dust storms, it’s likely that we have a cooler sea surface temperature and land surface temperature. The storms have less energy supply from the colder surface therefore will be less severe.”

The study goes on to show that dust and storm formation don’t mix.

“Our results show significant impacts of dust on the radiative budget, hydrological cycle, and large-scale environments relevant to tropical cyclone activity over the Atlantic,” said Zhang.

“Dust may decrease the sea surface temperature, leading to suppression of hurricanes. For the dust intrusion over the past few days, it was obvious that dust suppressed cloud formation in our area. Basically, we saw few cumulus clouds over the last few days. Dust particles reduce the radiation at the ground, but heats up in the atmosphere, both leading to more stable atmosphere. Such conditions are unfavorable for cloud formation.”

Zhang said that the chances of a hurricane forming tended to be much less and “our results show that dust may reduce the occurrence of hurricanes over the Gulf of Mexico region.”

Logan said that recent satellite images clearly show the Saharan dust moving into much of the Gulf of Mexico and southern Texas.

“The movement of the dust is there,” Zhang said, “but predictions of dust storms can be very challenging.”

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More category 5 hurricanes forecasted by scientists

Phys.org
July 18, 2018, Chapman University

“In the midst of hurricane season, climatologists around the world are monitoring tropical storm formations that have the potential to escalate into deadly hurricanes. The Atlantic hurricane season included 17 named storms last year, many of which proved to be costly and destructive for communities in their path. Hurricanes are becoming stronger and wetter due to rising sea and air temperatures. Saharan dust storms can also play a role in hurricane formation. Researchers at Chapman University have learned from studying 2012’s Hurricane Sandy, that we are more likely to see larger, more powerful hurricanes in the future.

“Although Sandy was a Category 3 storm when it made landfall in Cuba, it became the largest Atlantic hurricane on record when measured by diameter, with winds spanning 900 miles,” said Chapman University Climatologist Hesham El-Askary, Ph.D.

A Saharan dust event occurring in West Africa weeks before Sandy had formed carried large amounts of mineral dust into the troposphere, filling the tropical wave that became Sandy with aerosols along a majority of its path. By monitoring dust storms, Dr. El-Askary was able to tie this occurrence to the role it played in the hurricane’s development from a Category 1 to a Category 3 storm. With this work, he hopes to provide more accurate forecasting for these types of extreme weather occurrences.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Is Dust Worse in Summer?

Dust mites and allergies

Summer is on the way and so are allergies!  Take a look at the articles below for some info and some solutions.  Excerpts have been taken from both articles – for the complete article, please follow the links provided.

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How to Beat Summer AllergiesWebMD

“Spring’s over, but you’re still stopped up, sniffly, and sneezing.

Welcome to summer allergy season. It keeps going long after April’s showers and May’s flowers are gone.

Many of the same triggers are to blame. Once you know what they are, you can take steps to get treated.

Pollen Is the Biggest Culprit
Trees are usually done with their pollen-fest by late spring. That leaves grasses and weeds to trigger summer allergies.

Smog: It’s Worst This Time of Year
Summer air pollution can make your symptoms worse. One of the most common is ozone at the ground level. It’s created in the atmosphere from a mix of sunlight and chemicals from car exhaust. Summer’s strong sunlight and calm winds create clouds of ozone around some cities.

Tiny Things Grow in Warm Air
Molds love damp areas, including the basement and bathrooms. Their spores get into the air and set off an allergic reaction.

Microscopic insects called dust mites peak during summer. They thrive in warm, humid temperatures and nest in beds, fabric, and carpets. Their residue can get into the air and set off sneezes, wheezes, and runny noses.

How to Make Allergy Season Easier
Take some simple steps to avoid your triggers.

Stay inside when the pollen count and smog levels are high.
Keep your doors and windows closed. Run your air conditioner to keep allergens out. Use an air purifier.
Clean air filters in your home often. Also clean bookshelves, vents, and other places where pollen collects.
Wash bedding and rugs in hot water to get rid of dust mites and other allergens.
Wash your hair, shower, and change your clothes after you go outside.
Vacuum often and wear a mask. The process can kick up pollen, mold, and dust trapped in your carpet. Use a vacuum with a HEPA filter.
Wear a mask when you mow your lawn to avoid grass pollen.
Keep the humidity in your house between 30% and 50% so dust mites won’t thrive.”

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Dust Mite Solutions 

The Worst Time of Year for Dust Mite Allergy Symptoms

“If you have a dust mite allergy, you might wonder when the worst time of year is for dust mite symptoms. Could it be the Spring, Summer, Autumn, or Winter…or all of them. For many people suffering from dust mite allergy it probably seems like the suffering never stops. I agree!

In this article, I’ll share my personal experience with year-round dust mite allergy, typical symptoms, and some general treatment advice that was given to me by allergists. In addition, we’ll look at a few ways to improve your health and reduce your dust mite exposure.

Seasonal Pollen Allergies and Year-Round Dust Mite Allergies
For many allergy sufferers, seasonal exposure yields symptoms. For others, it may feel like one season is just as bad as another. For example, tree pollen season usually corresponds with spring when the weather warms and trees emerge from dormancy. Here is a guide to show when you might expect pollen allergy symptoms:

Pollen
Spring – trees
Summer – grasses
Fall – weeds
Winter – relief!

But what about Dust Mite allergy?
Well it’s not that simple. Dust mites live around us, primarily in our homes. They are less dependent on seasonality and more dependent on us!

Dust mite allergy is a unique allergy because dust mites are a living creature with short life spans. They need little water to survive (they absorb it through the air) and live off an endless supply of food that humans and pets produce on a daily basis. Their food source is, yes you guessed it, dead skin.

Our home environment allows dust mites to thrive and multiply throughout the year. Believe it or not, you cannot see dust mites. They are microscopic, and their presence in your home is almost guaranteed.

If you’re not sure whether you have a dust mite allergy here is a simple but accurate tip: If you have year-round allergy symptoms there is a good chance it’s due to dust mites.

In Summer Consider These Actions to Protect From Dust Mites
Dust Mite Proof Bedding (covers)

Beds are the number 1 home to dust mites. Protect your mattresses and pillows with dust-mite proof covers. We reviewed and recommended these mattress covers!

Dehumidifiers

If you live in a humid environment think about purchasing a dehumidifier that can reduce indoor moisture levels. Dehumidifiers can help reduce the dust mite population and reduce mold growth, especially if you have a basement.

Air Purifiers

Newer air purifiers can do wonders for cleaning indoor air. HEPA technology filters, which pick up the smallest particulates from the air can clean a whole room in 2 hours. Air Purifiers are a great addition for allergic individuals. Keep one air purifier in each room!

Air Conditioning Filters

Replace your filters in the winter and summer and buy allergy filters that remove the finest of particulates from the air. Filtrete has some great filters that not only keep out dust mites and allergens, but also odors, chemicals, and smoke (amazing).

Don’t Sweep, Use HEPA Vacuums!

Sweeping only stirs dust into the air and dust can stay suspended for hours, long after you’ve cleaned. HEPA filter vacuums suck in dust and capture it before air is released back into the room. HEPA vacuums work great for people with dust mite allergy and asthma.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Dust Storms in the Sahara

Sahara Dust Storms

There have been a large amount of dust storms in Africa over the last few month.  I hope you enjoy the read!

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Vast Dust Storms in the Sahara

Earth Observatory

“In late March 2018, North Africa endured a maelstrom of sand, with far-reaching effects. Dust from the Sahara spread north into Europe last week, coating ski slopes and Mediterranean cities in orange particles. In western Africa, tons of dust blew out over the Atlantic, perhaps headed for the Americas.

Even by the standards of the desert interior of Africa, the storms of late March have been intense. Schools and airports have been shut down in Sudan and Egypt, among other places, and a thick orange haze has filled the air as wind-driven sandstorms, or haboobs, stirred up the Sahara.

Though there is often some amount of dust being blown around in North Africa, recent activity appeared to pick up (as viewed by satellite) on March 21, 2018, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite acquired the top image. A full week later, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite acquired the second image, a natural-color view of an intense wave of dust in northeastern Africa. Major plumes of dust were visible somewhere around the Sahara on every day between those images.

“Springtime dust from Africa is interesting,” said Hongbin Yu, an atmospheric scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “Our analysis of multiple satellite measurements shows that in recent years annual dust variability is dominated by the spring. Surface wind is likely to be a dominating factor, although soil moisture and vegetation cover in Sahel-Sahara transition region also contribute.”

NASA recently began a collaboration with a science team at Cornell University to examine the climate effects of dust storms. Researchers will build an instrument, to be mounted on the International Space Station, that can detect the mineral composition of airborne dust. Minerals of various colors, sizes, and chemistry can have different warming or cooling effects on the atmosphere.”

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Dust storms ease across Africa and Middle East
“Huge amounts of dust have been on the move in recent days causing poor visibility from central Africa to the Levant.”

3 Apr 2018

Aljazeera

“Visibility across vast swaths of northern and central Africa and the Arabian Peninsula has been severely reduced since Thursday as a large-scale disturbance has resulted in huge quantities of Saharan dust being dispersed across the region.

A low pressure system developed over the desert region of Libya and the resulting circulation was responsible for dust being lifted high into the atmosphere. It swept from Egypt and Sudan, across the Arabian Peninsula and on into Kajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

There were no reports of flight cancellations, but visibility was severely reduced and many people reported increased respiratory problems.

While much of the dust swept eastwards, some was swept up from Chad and transported southwards and westwards on the northeasterly trade wind known as the Harmatten. Niger, Mali, northern Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso have all been affected.

Chad is the main source of Saharan dust. There are two key locations here. One is the Bodele Depression – the dried up remains of the ancient Lake Megachad.

The other is the Tibesti mountain area in the north of the country. Here, the volcanic mountains are rapidly eroded to dust by the harsh climate.

On a positive note, this mineral dust has great benefits. It will eventually find its way around much of the globe before being deposited in the Caribbean, Asia, South America, Europe and elsewhere.

The dust helps to build soil fertility, being rich in phosphorus, potassium, calcium and iron, depending on its source.”

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Dust storm slams Senegal
“The severe weather signals a dramatic start to the country’s rainy season.”

30 Jun 2018

Aljazeera 

“A sandstorm has battered Senegal leaving livestock dead and damaging the newly opened airport.

A wall of dust swept across the capital, Dakar, reducing visibility and bringing winds gusting to 90 kilometres per hour.

This type of dust storm is known as a “haboob” and is common in some parts of the world, such as the Arabian Peninsula, the Sahara and the desert southwest of the US. However, it is believed to be the first time that such a storm has churned over Senegal.

The word haboob is thought to have originated from Sudan and comes from the Arabic word for wind. The storms are formed when air blows strongly downwards, towards the ground, picking up vast amounts of dust. This usually happens as the result of a decaying thunderstorm.

The strong winds led to the death of a number of livestock and caused damage to the airport.

Planes were damaged, as was the terminal building, which only opened six months ago.

The haboob was followed by thunderstorms, which brought heavy rain and signalled the start of Senegal’s rainy season, which runs until October.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

Dust Bucket Sizes

In response to a request to supply buckets that are 300mm high and 150 mm in diameter, the following response was prepared.

Our buckets are not that size.  The only bucket that size is from America and will need to be imported.  All the South African buckets I have seen of that size are made up by hand and the quality control on the buckets would need to be checked so that there are no crevices for the dust to hide in on the inside of the bucket.  Some of these buckets are also not white, which makes it very difficult to know when the dust is washed out of the bucket completely.

DustWatch provides the normal 5 litre buckets that are a diameter of 17.1cm and a height of 23.6cm, as per the comment in our DustWatch manual

“The DustWatch buckets are not twice as high as they are wide with a diameter of 17.1cm and a height of 23.6cm”

We have explored the option of using a bucket extension to place on top of the buckets in the field, but the additional variables this introduces to the collection of the dust in the bucket has meant that we no longer encourage clients to use this option.  See the image below for an example.

White 5 litre bucket with Lid – ZAR each – With Blue Bucket Extension

An image of the bucket on its own is shown below.

Bucket with Lid – ZAR each (For less than 210 buckets) Bucket with Lid – ZAR Each – In multiples of 210 or with other equipment


The buckets from the USA are these ones – 

https://www.humboldtmfg.com/plastic-single-use-cylinder-molds.html for the containers and then also the lids https://www.humboldtmfg.com/cylinder-mold-plastic-lid-h-3041.html

“These buckets sometimes come with a little notch in the top of the container which makes it leak more when not kept vertical.  Buckets without the notch are available as well, but even without the notch the buckets are not totally leak proof.”

Please contact DustWatch regarding any queries.

Kind Regards

Chris Loans

CSIR unveils technologies to enhance mine safety

Mine safety

CSIR unveils technologies to enhance mine safetyMining Weekly

BY: NADINE JAMES
CREAMER MEDIA WRITER

“JOHANNESBURG (miningweekly.com) – It is unlikely that the mining industry will attain its goal of zero harm by 2020 and, as such, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has revealed some of the mine safety technologies it is developing and looking to commercialise.

Speaking at the Mandela Mining Precinct, on Tuesday, CSIR principal geophysicist Dr Michael van Schoor spoke about ground penetrating radar (GPR) and how it could be used to improve roof bolting applications, as well as detecting potential faults in the hanging wall.

He pointed out that 40% of all mine incidents resulted from fall of ground incidents.

With regard to general fault detection, he explained that GPR works similarly to speed traffic radar detection systems, as the GPR transmits a signal down into the ground and faults are mapped on a radargram based on the amplification and duration of the return signal.

Van Schoor added that the CSIR is developing the technology to produce three-dimensional maps which could be integrated, in real-time, to an existing mine plan.

Other technologies under development include an instrument called Rock Pulse, which is a device that can be attached to the rock to detect fracturing. Once the rock starts fracturing, the device alerts miners of a potential imminent collapse.

The device is meant to be used in close proximity to miners and should give miners at least 90 seconds to enable them to evacuate the area.

The device has been tested in coal mining applications, where rock fracturing is part of the mining process. It can, however, also be used for hard rock applications.

CSIR principal engineer Shaniel Davrajh added that the institution has also developed an enhanced pedestrian detection system which uses algorithms to predict whether a collision is imminent, thereby eliminating unnecessary vehicle stoppages.

Further, he noted that the CSIR has developed a robot platform equipped with safety inspection sensors to enter mines during safety periods. The robot, called Monster, aims to assess and identify risks for underground mines, using thermal imaging and audio sensors.

CSIR principal researcher Dr Dave Roberts explained that the thermal imaging sensor could be used to detect loose rocks, based on the knowledge that loose rocks cool faster than the hanging wall because of the increased ventilation.

Davrajh noted that the sensor could detect temperature differences as small as 0.1 °C, and that the Monster could mark areas as potentially hazardous. The audio sensor works similarly to ‘tapping a watermelon to determine whether it is ripe’, he added.

The CSIR Monster prototype has been trialed at the precinct’s stope simulation, which has a decline of around 30°.

The event was attended by various stakeholders, including the Minerals Council South Africa, the departments of Science and Technology and Mineral Resources and representatives from industry, besides others.”

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7 Steps to Safer, Healthier Mining EmployeesMining Safety

“You don’t need us to tell you that you have a tough job. But taking these seven steps can make your job easier and your workplace safer. You’re probably already doing most or all of these things, but just in case, here’s a quick review.

Ensure compliance with safety and health standards.
Make sure you’re complying in every detail with every standard that applies to your operations and your workplace. Also check state regulations, which if they’re stricter than federal standards, take precedence. And don’t forget about your own safety policies. Ensure compliance with those rules, too.

Keep employees informed about hazards.
Identify every hazard in every work area and in every job, and make sure employees who might be exposed to any hazards know:
What the hazards are
How they are dangerous
How to protect against them
What to do in the event of exposure to a particular hazard

Take appropriate steps to minimize risks.
This involves many things including:
Well-conceived and implemented workplace safety and health programs
Routine and thorough inspections and safety audits
Effective engineering, administrative, and work practice controls
Frequent and effective employee training
Appropriate PPE to protect employees from hazards when controls are not enough
Routine workplace maintenance

Teach employees to work safely.
Training is one of your most power accident-prevention tools. Teach the information, skills, techniques, and procedures employees need to know to be safe and healthy. Train frequently to keep workers up to date on workplace and regulatory changes and to keep them aware, alert, and prepared to work safely.

Monitor performance and provide feedback.
Don’t assume that workers will use what they learn in training or do what their supervisors tell them to do. For all kinds of reasons workers will decide to take risks or ignore warnings and instructions. Make sure your supervisors monitor safety performance and provide positive or corrective feedback to maintain safe and healthy behavior.

Pay attention to employees’ suggestions and complaints.
You may not be able to use all the suggestions or be thrilled about the complaints, but listening to employees is essential if you want to get them to be on board with your safety and health programs and to follow your safety rules. The big plus here is that employee participation leads to employee ownership, which leads to employee-driven safety and a safer workplace.

Move quickly to correct problems.
Foot-dragging over hazard abatement sends a bad message to employees. It says you don’t care about their safety. So take swift and effective action whenever a safety or health problem is brought to your attention.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

And while we were changing dust buckets……….

It’s not all hard work…….  Vollie the Killer Volstruis gave us a fabulous show during one of our dust bucket changes.

Vollie the Killer Volstruis   –   Click to watch the video.

 

Mine collapse in Zimbabwe

Recent sad news about a mine collapse in Zimbabwe……

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Mine collapse in Zimbabwe kills one, injures threeMining.com 
By – Valentina Ruiz Leotaud

“Local media are reporting that one person died and three were injured after a wall collapsed at the community-operated Gaika Mine in Kwekwe, central Zimbabwe.

The miners were digging for gold and allegedly were using explosives, which weakened the shaft where they were working.

Three of them ended up trapped for a few hours but were rescued by colleagues working nearby while the fatal victim, identified as Stenford Machangai, was crushed by a giant rock that had to be removed with a hydraulic jack together with his body.

According to Africa.com, the Zimbabwe National Army has been dealing for months with people working illegally at the mine site.

The operation is said to have been reopened by the ruling party, Zanu-PF, after 20 years of closure under a community ownership scheme. However, The Sunday News reports that such activities are rejected by its original owner, Duration Gold, a subsidiary of UK-based Clarity Enterprises.”

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Nehanda Radio – 20 August 2018

By – Michael Magoronga

Mine shaft collapse kills one, injures three

“A MINER at Gaika Mine in Kwekwe died after a shaft collapsed on him on Friday morning, police have confirmed.

Officer Commanding Kwekwe Police District Superintendent Kingston Mushawembiri said police had to seek help from the fire brigade to retrieve the body of Stanford Machangai of Torwood in Redcliff.

“We received the report on Friday morning and we summoned Kwekwe Fire Brigade who assisted in retrieving the body which was trapped for some time,” said Supt Mushawembiri.

He said there was a boulder which made it difficult to retrieve the body.

“We had to use a hydraulic jack to lift the rock and remove the body. It was very huge which took hours to lift,” he said.

Miners who were mining in another other shaft also helped to rescue three other colleagues who were trapped in the same shaft. Privilege Sayi, Sikhulekile Mlalazi and Kirian Chimutengo were reportedly trapped for some hours before they were rescued and taken to Kwekwe District Hospital where they are recovering.

“The other three did not sustain life threatening injuries and are recovering well at hospital. One of them broke his legs as the huge rock also fell on him, but I understand he is recovering well at hospital,” said Supt Mushawembiri.

The mine was re-opened last year after 20 years of closure, under a community ownership scheme. Owners of the mine, Duration Gold, have approached the courts arguing that the mining activities being carried out were illegal. Sunday News.”

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Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.

The Best Vacuum Cleaner

The best vacuum cleaner

At DustWach cc we are concerned with health , safety and hygiene both in the home and at your work place.  Dust, wherever it is, can cause health issues.  Here is an interesting review on The Best Vacuum Cleaner – a link to the original review is provided.

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Reviews.com

The Best Vacuum Cleaner

“Finding the best vacuum cleaners came down to just two things: which ones sucked up the most, and which ones were easiest to haul around. If they can’t hack that, why even bother? We got our hands on 19 flagship vacuums ranging from $80 to $600, dumped a bunch of junk on the floor, and compared the results.

Vacuuming. It’s on all of our to-do lists — a lot. In fact, you’ll spend an average of 30 minutes to an hour each week vacuuming for the rest of your life, according to Craig Amick, director of commercial development at Electrolux Small Appliances. That’s more than a full day every year just spent on dust, dirt, and debris.

The wrong vacuum (heavy, loud, flat-out doesn’t work) turns a simple task into a serious chore, but after testing 19 models, we’re happy to say that it doesn’t have to be so bad. We looked at the top upright vacuums from the leading brands to find which ones had powerful suction (100 percent pickup within two passes) and effortless maneuverability (so agile you could take it salsa dancing). Our pick for the best vacuum, the Hoover Air Cordless Lift, is easy to grab and go — it’s lightweight and zippy, with no cord to slow you down — and has seriously impressive cleaning power.

One thing that was shocking in our search (but not shocking to anyone who’s ever shopped for a vacuum): The price range on these guys is ridiculous. You can find a vacuum for $50 or for $1,000, even though basic performance and quality don’t vary much between mid-range and top-tier models. With those guys, you’re paying more for a lot of bells and whistles — from floor tools that light up to automatic suction control. With budget models, it’s a total mixed bag. Some truly suck (in the bad way) and others work better than their four-figure counterparts. Case in point: While you sacrifice some oomph and get lower-quality plastic construction, the Bissell CleanView 9595A ($80) outperformed much more expensive models like the SEBO 9807AM Felix 1 ($600) in both cleaning power and ease of use in our hands-on testing.

How We Found the Best Vacuums
Do a quick Amazon search, and suddenly you have over 13,000 vacuums to choose from. With no clear hierarchy of models or brands (coupled with the bewildering task of deciphering what’s a marketing gimmick and what’s a legitimate feature), shopping for a vacuum ends up as much a chore as vacuuming itself.

We knew finding the best was going to be a down-and-dirty mission. We wanted to get our hands on lots of vacuums and see how they stacked up doing their most fundamental task: sucking up gunk. Before we did that, though, we had to whittle down the list of thousands of machines to 19 of the highest-rated models from the best-known brands in the industry.

We only looked at uprights.
Vacuums come in all shapes and sizes — canister, stick, robotic, hand-held, upright — and comparing all of them would be like comparing an SUV with a coupe with a scooter to find the best car. To narrow the field, we looked at the most popular: uprights.

Compared to other models that are designed for specific purposes, upright vacuums are great at quickly removing dust and dirt from large areas of carpet, while also working well on hardwoods and area rugs. They are the most things to most people.

We looked at vacuums in two price categories: cheap and mid-range.
Our two benchmarks were under $250 and $250-$600. Any model over $600 we nixed. Why? Determining what bells and whistles were a priority really comes down to a matter of preference. Like shopping for a car, we wouldn’t presume that heated leather seats and satellite radio are must-have features for you.

And we picked the flagship models of top vacuum brands per price point.
Within each of the price points, we then dug deeper to see which models stood out. Some vacuums, like the Oreck XL Classic, have an avid fan base. (Really! Check out its reviews and you’ll find tons of loyal customers touting this lightweight model as the only vacuum they’ll ever own.) If a model was hands-down the most talked about, it made our list; if a brand didn’t have such a following, we defaulted to its highest-priced model within our two pricing categories — we wanted to put each brand’s top vacuums to the test.

Then we started vacuuming.
On medium-pile carpet, then on hardwood, we measured how many passes each vacuum took to thoroughly suck up the mess we made. To test each model’s ability with large particles, we evenly spread sand (a few cups) and Cheerios (generous handfuls), and then, sprinkled cinnamon and talcum powder to test fine-grain mayhem. The best vacuums sucked everything up in two passes — one forward, one back. The worst could never quite get the floor clean.

Riccar, which regularly garners ecstatic comments, had the least cleaning power of all 19 vacuums we tested. It took so many tries to pick up any sand and Cheerios, we took it apart to make sure we’d assembled it correctly. (We had.)

It may have a loyal following, but the Riccar’s performance didn’t impress us during testing. Note the large trail of debris left behind after the Riccar’s initial pass on hardwood.

The Kenmore Elite, by comparison, had great cleaning power, which at first we thought was the result of its “dirt sensor” — it sounded fancy, but turns out it’s just another way to raise or lower the brush depending on carpet height. Gimmicky marketing, but overall a great vacuum.

We also put each model through an obstacle course: multiple tables and chairs that mimicked the layout of a small room. We took each vacuum for a spin, requiring them to make at least two sharp, 90-degree turns in both directions, and to squeeze through the narrow slots between furniture. If it cornered like it was on rails and wasn’t too heavy to turn on a dime before bumping into something, we were impressed.

One of the key features for increased maneuverability is some form of swiveling joint between the body and the cleaning head; some vacuums do this better than others. Looks were deceiving with the Miele Dynamic U1 Twist: It seemed much bulkier than some of the more slender swivelers, but its patented SwivelNeck was something to behold — it handled each corner like a dream. The Shark Professional Rotator, on the other hand, looked sleek, but lacked control. (It also came with dangling accessories — so many that there is a special rolling caddy! — that dropped tools all over.)

Compared to the Miele Dynamic U1 Twist (top), the Shark Professional Rotator (bottom) felt wobbly and out of control.

Our Picks for Best Vacuum Cleaner
Our unanimous top pick was Hoover’s Air Cordless Lift for its excellent cleaning power and maneuverability. We were stunned that our only cordless model went straight to the top of the list. Most agree that cordless models aren’t quite there yet in terms of power (Sir James Dyson bought a battery company in 2015, but even he said not to expect battery-operated Dysons “for a few years”), yet this little Hoover defies the trend. It’s everything you want in an upright, and there’s no cord to trip you up.

It offers only two settings: carpet or no carpet, plus a “boost” button for more cleaning power, though both settings worked well without boosting. On carpeted floor, the Air Cordless Lift picked up both large and small particles, and never needed more than two passes. On hardwoods, it took another pass or two, but still sucked up every Cheerio and plowed through every pile of sand we put in its path. Then we turned on the boost and bingo: hardwood performance was just as good as carpet.

The Hoover Air Cordless Lift made quick work of our messes on both carpet and hardwood, and its maneuverability made navigating around furniture a breeze.

It maneuvered around our test furniture without a single collision in a way that can only be described as “zippy.” Granted, this pep did cause some weird handling in large expanses of carpet — it kept trying to maneuver even when we wanted it to keep pointing straight ahead. If you need it to run circles around Grandma’s curio cabinet or your 12-piece dining set, this vacuum’s maneuverability has you covered. Wide-open rooms might be frustrating — if that sounds like your home, we recommend the Oreck XL Classic, our best carpet pick, or the Samsung VU7000 Motion Sync, our pick for hardwood……….”

(For more please follow the link to the original article)

Best Vacuum Cleaners: Summed Up
Vacuum Cleaners                                                          Best For…
Hoover Air Cordless Lift                                                  Cleaning Power
Oreck XL Classic                                                            Carpet
Samsung VU7000 Motion Sync                                        Bare Floors
Bissell CleanView 9595A                                                 Budget
Miele Dynamic U1 Twist                                                 Luxury
Dyson Ball Animal                                                          Maneuverability
Kenmore Elite                                                                Kenmore Brand
Electrolux Precision Brushroll Clean                                  Accessories

Did You Know?
Cleaning power is more complicated than your vacuum manufacturer tells you.
Historically, manufacturers and their marketers say a vacuum’s cleaning power is the amperage of its motor. Not so, according to Energy Star. It found a minimal correlation between power and cleaning performance — cleaning head design, brush mechanisms, and other design elements are more important; filtration and dust removal are independent of power, too. While a vacuum might tout 12 amps of cleaning power, that doesn’t really tell you much.

It really comes down to suction and airflow (measured in cubic feet per minute, or CFMs). In vacuums, strong suction is created by air passing quickly and unrestricted through an intake port. Now, for a bit of physics: Since the speed of the fan is constant, so is the amount of air passing through the vacuum. No matter the size of the intake port, the same number of air particles need to pass through — the smaller the port, the more quickly air particles will move. This increase in airspeed decreases pressure, which results in greater suction. (This is why narrow vacuum attachments can pick up heavier dirt particles than wider ones.)

The tricky thing with airflow ratings is that most upright makers don’t actually list them — they only list amps — so you have to look at how the vacuums are made. There are two basic designs of upright vacuums: direct air and bypass.

We didn’t weigh in on the bagged vs. bagless debate.
Both designs have been proven to clean well, so one isn’t necessarily better than the other. It’s a matter of preference. Bagless vacuums offer less waste (and save you money since you aren’t buying replacements), but some say you have to empty them more than bagged vacuums. Folks with severe allergies will want to go for a bagged model though: The bags seal, trapping dust and allergens.

But if you have asthma or allergies, you’ll want to take more precaution.
The best thing to do if you have asthma or allergies is to live without carpet — carpets are notorious for capturing dust, pollen, and other irritating particles. If that’s not a possibility, regular vacuuming becomes even more important.

Second, while everything we found pointed to bagged vacuums as being the better option for allergies, Dr. Rivera-Mariani warns that standard bags easily get tiny tears that allow leakage. If you have a model with bags, replacements with electrostatic properties (these are available for most major vacuums) help keep pesky particles contained. (The electrostatic causes the dust particles to stick together, so they’re less likely to escape.)

And last, Dr. Rivera-Mariani strongly recommends a sealed HEPA filter. There are less stringent forms of filtration, like the basic sort all vacuums have (including our Hoover top pick), which absorb dust, but don’t capture pollen or pet dander. These are generally fine for most people, but if you’re sensitive to irritants, HEPA is the way to go. Dr. Rivera-Mariana goes as far to recommend HEPA filtration even if you have no respiratory issues. Allergies can build up over time, and symptoms may show up suddenly in previously non-allergic individuals.”

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We hope you enjoyed reading this review – please remember that only excerpts have been used. Please feel free to follow the link above and read the full review.

Dust Monitoring Equipment – providing equipment, services and training in dust fallout management to the mining industry.